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Cold Case JFK (#4022)

State-of-the art forensic tools are applied to investigate the assassination of John F. Kennedy. [56 minutes] Closed Captioning

This episode has not aired in the past few months on Iowa Public Television.

PBS Video

Information For Teachers

Grade Levels
6-8, 9-12
Curricular Areas
Science & Technology
Series Length
440 episodes
Average Episode Length
61 minutes
Record Rights
Record and retain for 1 year from each broadcast. No duplication allowed.
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Series Description: PBS' premier science series helps viewers of all ages explore the science behind the headlines. Along the way, NOVA programs demystify science and technology and highlight the people involved in scientific pursuits.

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  • A Man, A Plan, A Canal, Panama (#1415)

    The Panama Canal opened in 1914 after a 30-year effort that dwarfed the building of the pyramids. Historian David McCullough navigates through the canal and tells the story of the human drama behind the engineering feat. [56 minutes]

  • Fastest Planes in the Sky (#1817)

    "Fastest Planes in the Sky"--Aviation has sped along since 1908, when the world's first airborne speed record was set at a blistering 47 mph. NOVA looks at the lure of flying ever faster. [56 minutes]

  • This Old Pyramid (#1915)

    An Egyptologist and a professional stonemason put clever pyramid construction theories to the test. [56 minutes]

  • Secrets of the Psychics (#2012)

    This episode tours the world with James "The Amazing" Randi -- magician, writer and recipient of a MacArthur "genius" grant -- as he seeks to discredit psychic phonies. For the past twenty years, Randi has offered a prize of $10,000 to anyone who can successfully demonstrate paranormal powers in a scientifically controlled environment. This program watches as Randi tests dousers in Australia, faith healers in America, and scientists in Russia. [56 minutes]

  • Roller Coaster! (#2016)

    The opening of Disneyland in 1955 revived a flagging amusement park industry and inspired many imitators. Nearly forty years later, theme parks and ride designers, from Euro Disney to Universal Studios, are engaged in a high-tech battle to fulfill people's dreams and create the ultimate leisure experience. Taking a ride as experts battle to build bigger and better roller coasters, this program visits the Disney theme parks, Paramount's King's Dominion Park in Virginia, and other facilities. It also features extensive archival footage of the early days of amusement rides. [56 minutes]

  • Mysterious Crash of Flight 201 (#2017)

    Just hours after the crash of a South American airliner, Copa Flight #201, in a remote Panamanian jungle, Nova was on the ground with a team from the National Transportation Safety Board. This program followed investigators as they conducted tests on the fuselage of the wrecked plane, performed autopsies on the recovered bodies, attempted to retrieve data from the cockpit recorder, and analyzed findings from the data recorder. Upon conclusion of the probe, investigators blamed the problem on a faulty attitude indicator and a faulty connection between the gyroscope and attitude indicator. [56 minutes]

  • Dinosaurs of the Gobi (#2102)

    The real Indiana Jones was the paleontologist Roy Chapman Andrews, who in the 1920s led fossil-hunting expeditions among the towering dunes and desolate cliffs of Mongolia's Gobi desert. Now "Nova" joins a team from the American Musuem of Natural History as it retraces Andrews's adventures and gathers provocative new evidence about how dinosaurs lived and why they died. [56 minutes]

  • Aircraft Carrier (#2110)

    This program goes on board the USS Independence, a "forward deployed" aircraft carrier in the Persian Gulf, and joins four of its flight crew at the celebrated "Top Gun" school in California. In a world at peace, the aircraft carrier is the linchpin of U.S. military strategy. However, with its 80 planes and 5,000 servicemen, it's equivalent in size to a small airport and becomes a powerful force during the Gulf War. [56 minutes]

  • The Great Wildlife Heist (#2111)

    This program goes undercover with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service investigators to expose the smuggling pipeline by which rare and endangered birds come to the United States. Worth an estimated $2 billion a year worldwide, the illegal traffic in birds has begun to rival narcotics smuggling in both magnitude and technique as poachers, smugglers, and unscrupulous dealers fill a demand the legitimate dealers can't meet. In this episode, Nova chronicles the federal government's efforts at interdiction. [56 minutes]

  • Secret of the Wild Child (#2112)

    This documentary follows the case of "Genie," a modern-day "wild child" whose parents kept her imprisoned in her home from infancy. When social workers found her as a teenager, she had not learned to walk or talk. This program chronicles researchers' and mental health experts' ultimately unsuccessful efforts to rehabilitate Genie, and explores questions about how--and when--we learn the skills that make us human. [56 minutes]

  • Mammoths of the Ice Age (#2201)

    Woolly mammoths were thought to have become extinct 10,000 years ago because of the vast environmental changes that ended the ice age. When 4,000-year-old mammoth tusks were found on an island between Siberia and Alaska, scientists and archaeologists had to revise the history of the great woolly mammoths. How did they die -- was it environmental or possibly the arrival of humans in North America? Large houses built entirely of mammoth bones indicated the swift hunting of the animal, although the bones could have been scavenged from mammoths who had already died. "NOVA" explores the events leading up the mammoth's demise and sheds light on all the possible causes of its extinction. [56 minutes]

  • Little Creatures Who Run The World (#2203)

    Ants are everywhere. They outnumber humans a million to one, and their total weight equals that of the entire human race. In this program, Harvard University naturalist Edward Wilson provides a tour of this rival superpower. With the aid of innovative close-up photography, he reveals the hidden world of ants--a world of violent predation, tactical warfare, highly efficient division of labor, chemical communication, and even animal husbandry. [56 minutes]

  • Siamese Twins (#2205)

    In Thailand, two baby girls were born joined at the pelvis and sharing a common leg. They were taken into the care of an American foster family, and the world's most experienced team in the division of Siamese twins agreed to attempt to separate them. This program chronicles the preparations, surgery and aftermath of this high-risk operation. [56 minutes]

  • Fast Cars (#2208)

    Race car driver Bobby Rahal and a team of engineers strive to design a new car that can win at Indy. [56 minutes]

  • Anastasia Dead Or Alive? (#2209)

    Shortly after midnight on July 17, 1918, in the town of Ekaterinburg in the Ural Mountains, Bolshevik guards executed deposed Tsar Nicholas II, his family, doctor and servants. Questions about this chilling assassination continue to circulate: primarily, did princess Anastasia escape the massacre? NOVA examines the claims by Anna Anderson and her supporters that she was the missing Anastasia and follows the dramatic unfolding of scientific evidence. With the recent discovery of the Romanov family's remains, DNA testing provides the ultimate clue to solve this daunting mystery. [56 minutes]

  • Venus Unveiled (#2210)

    The latest in a succession of NASA probes to the planets, Magellan, reveals startling new evidence regarding the surface of Venus. This program examines the exploration of Earth's sister planet and the lively debate surrounding Venus' geological make-up. The absence of ancient impact craters suggests that Venus experiences periodic upheavals that obliterate its surface features, a process unlike anything else observed in the solar system. However, some geologists cling to a more conventional model of the planet's behavior based on volcanic tectonic activity similar to that of Earth. [56 minutes]

  • The Doomsday Asteroid (#2212)

    How great is the risk to human civilization from asteroids and comets? When a meteor exploded in the atmosphere over a remote region of Tunguska, Siberia in 1908, it released the energy of a forty megaton bomb. Had the meteor entered the atmosphere two hours earlier, it would have vaporized St. Petersburg. Many astronomers think a Tunguska-sized meteor will invade earth's atmosphere again in the next fifty to one hundred years. Some predict another asteroid cataclysm similar to the one that may have wiped out the dinosaurs sixty-five million years ago. This episode explores these possibilities and asks: How safe are we? [56 minutes]

  • Lightning! (#2213)

    Lightning is one of nature's most awesome and unpredictable forces, striking the earth 8.5 million times a day. Ever since Ben Franklin's legendary kite experiment, scientists have been drawn to the problem of explaining how lightning is generated, yet today there are at least two fundamentally different theories about why it happens. This episode follows the adventures of three daring scientific teams dedicated to solving the mystery, and presents some of the most spectacular images of lightning ever filmed. [56 minutes]

  • Hunt for the Serial Arsonist (#2214)

    In the spring of 1991, a rash of suspicious store fires in Los Angeles set fire investigators on the trail of a serial arsonist. Using ingenious techniques to "read" burn patterns and reconstruct the chain of events at each fire, the team uncovered a crucial clue--a fingerprint on a crude incendiary device. Eight months later, the team closed in on their chief suspect and revealed the shocking truth behind his identity. This program is a classic scientific detective story with a plot twist that will keep viewers guessing until the end. [56 minutes]

  • Treasures of the Great Barrier Reef (#2215)

    Australia's Great Barrier Reef is host to the planet's most spectacular array of marine life, including more than 2,000 species of fish. Until now, no wildlife filmmaker has attempted to chronicle the awesome diversity of a typical 24-hour period of activity at the reef's edge. From dawn to dusk, this program observes the activity of such startling creatures as the blind shrimp and the pop-eyed goby fish. From plankton and flatworms to menacing moray eels and whale sharks, cameras record the dramatic and complex relationships among the species on the reef and bring to the screen such mesmerizing scenes as the spawning of millions of coral eggs precisely triggered by the rising of the full moon. [55 minutes]

  • The Day The Earth Shook (#2302)

    Does an Earthquake have to be a disaster? This episode seeks to answer that question by examining the massive earthquakes that struck Northridge, California and Kobe, Japan exactly one year apart on January, 17 1994 and 1995. Fifty-seven died in the Northridge quake; over five thousand died in Kobe. This program looks at the similarities and differences in these parallel disasters, the lessons learned and the steps being taken to limit the death and destruction of future urban earthquakes. [56 minutes]

  • B-29 Frozen In Time (#2303)

    An expedition heads to the Arctic to find a downed B-29 that was lost over the North Pole in 1947. [56 minutes]

  • Plague Fighters (#2304)

    This program looks at the recent Ebola outbreak in Kikwit, Zaire. It follows researchers, doctors and Red Cross personnel as they mobilize to educate communities about the extremely contagious virus, and attempt to locate the source of the most deadly virus known to humankind. The documentary gives viewers an inside look at the cooperation and disagreements among scientists from the Centers for Disease Control, and doctors from Zaire and other countries who converge on Kikwit to help contain the virus. [56 minutes]

  • War Machines of Tomorrow (#2305)

    "War Machines of Tomorrow" looks at the effectiveness of new technologies in the Gulf War and beyond. It examines the successes and limitations of the "smart bombs" employed in Desert Storm and how the lessons of that conflict have spurred new technological advances. The program also looks at the demands of these new technologies on their human counterparts and explores more recent urban conflicts in which United States troops have had to rely on more traditional modes of combat. [56 minutes]

  • Kidnapped By Ufos? (#2306)

    In 1963, a respectable, middle-aged New Hampshire couple reported being abducted by aliens and taken aboard their spacecraft. This case of "alien abduction" became the first of many tales of extraterrestrial kidnapping. This program explores these increasingly pervasive stories and looks at the causes of incredible claims of UFO's, telepathy, teletransport, and intergalactic genetic experimentation. [56 minutes]

  • Warriors of the Amazon (#2309)

    This program travels to the Amazonian jungle to live among the Yanomami, one of the few remaining hunter/gatherer groups in the world. The program centers around the shaman and his responsibilities as spiritual leader of this endangered community who live much as they did 2,000 years ago. This episode records healing ceremonies, death practices and other customs, including a ritual feast with their enemies. [56 minutes]

  • Bombing of America (#2310)

    The episode examines the increasing number of bombings in the United States. The program focuses on the use of forensic science, and profiles the investigators and scientists who carefully extract the hard-to-find evidence that incriminates suspects in these crimes. Featured in the show is the UNABOMBER case; the World Trade Center bombing; the attempted bombing of the U.S. Appeals Court in Atlanta; a series of abortion clinic bombings in the Washington, D.C. area; the New York City "Mad Bomber" case of the 1950's; and other bombing incidents from around the country. The program combines interviews with experts, on-site footage, and an examination of the anatomy of the bombs to show how these cases unraveled and how the culprits were apprehended. [56 minutes]

  • Einstein Revealed (#2311)

    Einstein had more on his mind than space and time. A precocious and curious child, Einstein spent time in his father's factory getting early practical experience with electromagnetism. At the univeristy in Zurich, he missed classes, challenged professors and, after his graduation, was unable to secure a teaching position. He also began a secret affair with his classmate Mileva -- later to become his wife -- who had her own dreams of becoming a great scientist. Newly discovered letters have provided some surprising insight into this turbulent period of his life. As he was discovering new truths about the universe, he increasingly ignored his new wife and family, and his marriage eventually failed. This program explores the fascinating connections between Einstein's stormy private life and his extraordinary creativity. [116 minutes]

  • Lost City of Arabia (#2312)

    This program follows an expedition to Oman to look for the lost city of Ubar. An ancient center of the frankincense trade, myth had it that God, angered by Ubar's impiety, destroyed the city thousands of years ago. Nicaholas Clapp, filmmaker and amateur archaeologist, has been obsessed by the legend and sought out information on the actual city now buried somewhere in the desert. After viewing satellite photos, Clapp zeros in on Ubar's location and he and his team set out over the desert to discover its ruins. [56 minutes]

  • Secrets of Making Money (#2314)

    This program introduces a new look for Ben Franklin on the redesigned $100 bill. The new note includes a panoply of hard-to-reproduce features designed to thwart the growing ranks of counterfeiters, including the new breed who multiply their wealth at the local copy shop. [56 minutes]

  • Top Gun Over Moscow (#2315)

    This episode takes viewers inside the Russian air force. Since the end of the Cold War, outsiders have been allowed greater access to the formidable fleet of planes and pilots assigned to protect Russian skies. The program examines the history of Russian combat flight from World War I to the Korean War, and examines the Russians' philosophy of air combat and training. They build their planes to be sturdy and combat-ready. The pilots rely on older, less complex navigation and weapon systems and their training focuses on the dogfight -- the old fashioned, plane-to-plane style of combat. The program also points out how funding shortages curtail pilot training and create new dangers in the post-Cold War environment. Russians have sold planes and weapons to many countries, including China, and also help to train other nations' pilots in order to fund their own programs. In addition, the Russian air force has found a new revenue source: thrill-seeking westerners who pay $15,000 to fly on a high-performance Sukhoi 27. [56 minutes]

  • Shark Attack! (#2316)

    Strong and deadly, silent and swift, insatiable in its hunger for flesh -- there is no more powerful image in nature than that of the shark. NOVA explores the behavior of the great white and the tiger shark, and the attitudes of people toward these emblems of terror --from those who would like to see all sharks destroyed, to others whose fear is tempered with awe. Filmed in California, Hawaii and Australia, the program focuses on the dramatic increase in shark attacks on humans in the last few years and includes spectacular footage of sharks in action. [56 minutes]

  • Odyssey of Life (#2317)

    The first program of this series presents images of human and animal embryos that dramatize the universal roots of all living things. The program compares reproduction and the development of the fetus to the beginnings of life on earth and the process of evolution. The program traces the history of life on the planet, including the development of one-celled organisms; a computer animated representation of the first creatures to leave the primordial sea and evolve into land animals; an explanation of birds as the descendents of the dinosaurs; and an examination of the common genetic material of humans and chimpanzees. [56 minutes]

  • Odyssey of Life (#2318)

    In this program, Nilsson turns his lens toward the unseen war that human bodies fight every day against bacteria, viruses, fungi and other microscopic intruders. This episode takes viewers inside the human body to witness the war between invading bacteria and parasites and our immune systems. Nilsson provides incredible close-ups of viruses invading cells and multiplying. Viewers also encounter hair-raising magnification of tiny mites, beetles and borers that share humans' everyday surroundings, and are left with a poetic vision of nature's eternal cycle of decay and renewal. [56 minutes]

  • Odyssey of Life (#2319)

    In the final hour of this three-part look at the basis of life, viewers meet Lennart Nilsson, the man who brought "Miracle of Life" to the screen, and learn some of the technical secrets behind his astonishing photography. Nilsson began his career as a photojournalist and photographer for Life Magazine, taking portraits of celebrities and prominant figures such as Ingrid Bergman, Igor Stravinsky, Louis Armstrong and the Swedish royal family. In the fifties, Nilsson turned to science and the quest to reveal the secrets of life. This episode shows Nilsson at work, with tiny lenses used to film inside the body and scanning electron microscopes with which he captures incredible images of microscopic organisms and viruses. [56 minutes]

  • Cracking The Ice Age (#2320)

    This episode explores a new path of inquiry into the cause of the Ice Age. Since the planet formed about 4.5 billion year ago, the climate has been predominantly hot, the land covered with lush, tropical rainforest. No ice existed on the planet, even at the poles. 40 million years ago, so much ice formed that the sea level dropped 400 feet. Previously it had been thought that changes in the earth's orbit accounted for the Ice Age. But as scientists continue to look for the cause of such an abrupt cooling of the earth, they have begun to look toward geological explanations. This program follows a team of scientists to the Tibetan plateau as they look for answers in the Himilayan mountains, the earth's most prominent geological formation. [56 minutes]

  • Kaboom! (#2401)

    NOVA takes an in-depth, heart-stopping look at the ultimate chemical reaction -- the explosion. Using high speed photography and dramatic reconstructions, this episode charts the tarnished history of explosives: the scientific ingenuity, the terrible accidents, and ultimately, the carnage of war and terrorism. [56 minutes]

  • Titanic's Lost Sister (#2402)

    Few people realize that the "Titanic" had two nearly identical sister ships, the "Olympic" and the "Britannic." The "Olympic" had a successful career as a liner until she broke up in 1935, but the " Britannic" met a fate almost as unlucky as the "Titanic"'s. Serving as a hospital ship in the Aegean, it was either torpedoed or struck a mine on November 21, 1916, and sank within an hour, yet only 30 of the crew of 1,100 died. "NOVA" joins the search for the wreck of the "Britannic" and explores the evidence of its dramatic end. [56 minutes]

  • Secrets of Lost Empires (#2403)

    Located in the Salisbury plains of England, Stonehenge has been clouded in mystery for centuries. Only recently have archaeologists been able to glimpse into its ancient history. Built at the end of the Stone Age some 4,500 years ago by a sophisticated civilization, Stonehenge was a remarkable feat of technology. As archaeologists attempt to duplicate the ancient temple, they encounter difficulties such as how to transport a 40-ton stone 22 miles across the hilly British terrain without the aid of modern technology. (For the description of "Inca," please see the program report for NOVA2404K) [56 minutes]

  • Secrets of Lost Empires (#2404)

    In the episode, NOVA unravels the mysteries of the Incan stone fortresses, which have survived centuries of violent volcanic earthquakes far better than their European colonial counterparts and deceptively simple grass bridges which have been used for centuries to span dizzingly deep gorges. [56 minutes]

  • Secrets of Lost Empires (#2405)

    This program travels up the Nile to investigate the mysterious, massive obelisk raised by late Egyptian pharaohs in commemoration of anniversaries and battle victories, and in homage to the gods. Egyptologist Mark Lehner joins stonemason Roger Hopkins to find out how the monuments were cut, transported and placed in position. With time and resources running out, the team faces challenges in raising the obelisk and attempt a variety of methods of placing the massive stone. [56 minutes]

  • Secrets of Lost Empires (#2406)

    In the final episode, NOVA's team of experts attempts to recreate the vast canvas awning of the Roman Colosseum in a bullring near Barcelona. [56 minutes]

  • Hunt for Alien Worlds (#2407)

    Since the dawn of mankind, humans have asked questions about the stars, space and the heavens. Is Earth alone in the universe as the only planet capable of sustaining life? This program examines the latest technology and features interviews with renowned "planet hunters" to arrive at some answers. Recognizing limitations by atmospheric interference, scientists have turned to space-launched observatories capable of providing images of unprecedented clarity. The planet hunters also use stars to detect the presence of other planets, monitoring their light waves precisely -- down to measurements in atoms -- to see if they gravitate towards planetary systems. This program follows several of the planet hunters as they make exciting new discoveries, face criticism from their colleagues and pursue new worlds. [56 minutes]

  • Curse of T. Rex (#2408)

    For those who hope to reconstruct the story of life on earth, fossil bones are vital clues and treated as treasure. When the best T-Rex specimen is found, everyone -- from the federal government, the ranchers, the lawyers and the scientists -- wants a piece of the action. The result is a showdown in the Badlands. This episode follows the interested parties as they struggle to retain custody of "Sue," a T-Rex fossil found in South Dakota. Should fossil remains be left alone for scientific research or can they be excavated by fossil hunters who turn a profit for the valuable bones? Nova examines the politics, commercial trade and ethics that are at the controversial center of "Curse of T-Rex." [56 minutes]

  • Cut to the Heart (#2409)

    When a new, revolutionary type of heart surgery is performed in Brazil, the world of medicine becomes divided. Dr. Randas Batista, a Brazilian cardiologist and heart surgeon, has developed a method of removing large areas of patients' hearts in cases of congestive heart failure due to the organ's enlargement. The procedure is controversial in the United States because of Batista's lack of patient follow-up information and hence, an unknown success rate among his patients. Should doctors in the United States offer the surgery to those patients waiting for heart donors, in a country where only 2500 donor hearts are available each year? Or will the procedure shorten these lives even more? This episode examines the controversies within the medical community and provides graphic, close-up footage of the surgery. The program also follows two case studies within the United States, chronicling the benefits and frustrations of those who have undergone the surgery. [56 minutes]

  • Kingdom of the Sea Horse (#2410)

    The sea horse is an elusive sea creature that holds an almost irresistible allure. Living in coastal waters around the world--from Nova Scotia to Tasmania--it's a mysterious, beautiful, graceful animal that carries a very unique trait: only the males become pregnant and give birth. This program follows biologist Amanda Vincent as she researches the complex behaviors and breeding habits of the sea horse, as well as the growing trade of sea horses for use in traditional Chinese medicines and household aquariums around the world. With sea horse populations dwindling, Vincent travels to a remote Philippine island where he establishes a conservation program with startling results. [56 minutes]

  • Coma (#2411)

    The most common cause of death and disability among 1-44 year-olds is head injury. Now, an innovative and simple technique developed by a New York neurosurgeon is saving and improving the lives of head trauma victims. This episode follows the treatment of Alex, a young boy who suffered severe head injuries when he was hit by a car and arrived at the hospital in a comatose state. Dr. Jam Ghajar drained the spinal fluid from Alex's swelling brain to relieve cranial pressure. This uncomplicated procedure was a key aspect in keeping Alex from a permanent vegetative state. Although successful with many of his head trauma patients, Dr. Ghajar's operation has been controversial to some in the medical community. His effort to organize guidelines for the treatment of head injuries is a challenging one, and is also chronicled in this story. [56 minutes]

  • Faster Than Sound (#2412)

    Breaking the sound barrier was a milestone in the history of aviation. The sonic boom was first felt by Americans at the Bell Aircraft Corporation on October 14, 1947 -- but the race to fly faster than the speed of sound began before World War II. The risks, struggles and sacrifices made by German, British and American engineers opened the door to the era of modern aviation and space exploration. This program chronicles the competition between three major post-war powers, the lives lost; and the technology produced in the race to go faster than sound. [56 minutes]

  • The Proof (#2414)

    In the 1600s, Pierre De Fermat made some of the greatest breakthroughs in mathematics history, including his famous theorem of Pythagoras -- a theorem in which the sum of the squares of the lengths of the sides of a right triangle is equal to the square of the length of the hypotenuse. He also stated that only the square of a number would work in his equation, not any other number. He claimed to have a proof for this conjecture, but it has never been found -- in fact, mathematicians have attempted to rediscover Fermat's lost proof for the last three centuries. This program introduces Andrew Wiles, a mathematician from Princeton University, who spent seven years in secret isolation working out the complex equations needed to prove Fermat's theorem. What he discovered was the mathematics story of the century. This program recounts his struggle in finding the proof, the effect on the mathematics community and Wiles' own joys and regrets in taking on this challenge. [56 minutes]

  • Wild Wolves with David Attenborough (#2415)

    The wolf brings forth many images, from "teacher"--as the Native Americans called them--to the Devil himself. Wolves are intelligent hunters, skillful and wary -- attributes that make them mysterious and often feared by humans. As a result, wolves have been hunted relentlessly, often out of panic or by farmers who see them as a threat to their livestock. Now, wolves seem to flourish only in remote habitats that allow them the physical space they need to survive. Renowned naturalist David Attenborough debunks the myths of wolves as vicious killers, and reveals the familial bonds and beauty of the wolf's cunning personality. By following several packs of wolves, he chronicles their behavior, hunting techniques, and pup-rearing -- elements that must be understood and respected to support the wolf's survival. [56 minutes]

  • Super Bridge (#2416)

    The great Mississippi River is a flowing highway 2,300 miles long and, in some places, more than a mile wide. It provides an immense support system to commerce and industry for the cities along its banks. For the residents of Alton -- a charming but sleepy town in southern Illinois -- the Mississippi River brought early settlers, activity and trade to the area. But as years passed and the age of industry arrived, the river became a divider and isolated Alton from St. Louis, Missouri, and the bustling commercial contact it needed to survive. As a result, the Clark Bridge -- a small, two-lane span responsible for transporting 20,000 people on their daily commute to St. Louis -- needed to be replaced. Super Bridge chronicles the extensive planning, challenges and anguish surrounding the construction of the new, mammoth bridge connecting Alton and St. Louis. [116 minutes]

  • Treasures of the Sunken City (#2417)

    Dive below the surface into a watery graveyard of the lost Egyptian city of Alexandria. [56 minutes]

  • Avalanche! (#2418)

    Over a million avalanches occur each year. In 1995, 250,000 tons of snow fell on the small fishing village of Flateyri, Iceland killing twenty residents. This documentary follows scientists who go to extremes to study how and when gravity can make snow so destructive. Major testing grounds include the Swiss Alps and Montana, where snow and recreation go hand-in-hand. Safety specialists and patrols set out early in the morning to make mountains safe for skiers. Often these specialists risk their own lives, as when a team of scientists from Montana State University allow themselves to be buried alive in a shack in order to observe the impact of an avalanche. But their task is an urgent one: each year, the death toll from avalanches rises as an increasing number of skiers and snowmobile riders head into the back country. [56 minutes]

  • Danger in the Jet Stream! (#2419)

    In the winter of 1996-97, three global challengers lifted off to compete in one of the last great aeronautic challenges: a non-stop journey around the world in a balloon. NOVA was on board all three attempts, including that of acknowledged underdog balloonist Steve Fossett, an American who made it all the way from Missouri to a remote corner of India. Through this dramatic adventure, NOVA reveals the engineering challenges and foibles of weather that make or break these balloonists' dreams of circumnavigating the globe. [56 minutes]

  • Night Creatures of the Kalahari (#2501)

    Beneath the grassland plains of Africa's Kalahari lies a hidden world of rare and exotic animals. By day, the Kalahari belongs to familiar predators and grazing animals. At night, the earth seems to release scores of seldom-seen nocturnal creatures -- bush babies, brown hyenas, aardvarks and fungal termites -- in search of food. [56 minutes]

  • Mysterious Mummies of China (#2502)

    Perfectly preserved 3000-year-old mummies have been unearthed in a remote Chinese desert. They have long, blonde hair and blue eyes, and don't appear to be the ancestors of the modern-day Chinese people. Who are these people and how did they end up in China's Takla Makan desert? "NOVA" takes a glimpse through a crack in the door of history, to a past that has never before been seen outside of China. [56 minutes]

  • Supersonic Spies (#2503)

    The race to build the world's first supersonic passenger airliner led to a massive espionage effort during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the west. The Soviets started years behind the Concorde team, but espionage enabled Konkordski to beat Concorde into the air by three months. Now, "NOVA" reveals the cause behind the fatal Konkordski disaster at the 1973 Paris Air Show, which put the Soviet's work on the plane in a deep freeze. In a twist of fate, Konkordski is being resurrected in a NASA initiative to build the second generation of supersonic jets. [56 minutes]

  • Animal Hospital (#2504)

    Tapping into the clearly demonstrated affection we all have for our pets, this program will offer an offbeat, sometimes humorous, sometimes sad portrait of pets, their owners, and the veterinarians who treat our beloved animals' ailments. From race horses under the knife for a blocked colon, to a dog on Prozac, "NOVA" examines how cutting edge veterinary medicine is saving lives and draws viewers into the mini-dramas that unfold each day in homes, in zoos, and in veterinary hospitals across the country. [56 minutes]

  • The Brain Eater (#2505)

    In this scientific mystery, "NOVA" ventures to the front lines of medical research where scientists are scrambling to understand the strange new ailment popularly known as "mad cow disease." Highly infectious and incurable, this disease has claimed the lives of nearly a million cattle in Britain, and a variant is responsible for a handful of deaths in humans. Millions more people may have been exposed, and now the race is on to determine if we are on the brink of another deadly epidemic like AIDS or Ebola. What scientists are finding is making them rethink many fundamental assumptions about epidemiology and may hold startling implications for public health in the future. [56 minutes]

  • Everest - The Death Zone (#2506)

    "NOVA" treks with a group of Himalayan climbers in their quest to reach the summit of Everest, along the way exploring in never-before-conducted tests of how extremes of weather and altitude affect the human mind and body. Why do some people succumb so quickly to the ills caused by high altitude while others do not? Does exposure to extreme hypoxia -- or lack of oxygen -- take a lasting toll on the mind and body? Images of the brain scanned before and after the expedition may reveal truths about the physical traumas suffered in an oxygen-depleted environment, and give us new insight into why the tallest mountain in the world has claimed so many victims. [56 minutes]

  • Search for the Lost Cave People (#2507)

    "NOVA" follows an international team of archaeologists and spelunkers into the Rio la Venta Gorge deep in the Chiapas jungle of Central America. In a rugged canyon they find caves filled with startling remains of a people called the Zoque who lived hundreds of years before the Maya. The extreme inaccessibility and relative dryness of the caves has preserved rare artifacts including bones, clothes, rope, and jewelry. Moving downstream from the caves, the team finds a legendary city hidden in a tangle of jungle vines. Evidence of the Zoques sophisticated writing system and their practice of ritualistic cannibalism and child sacrifice is shedding new light on a little-known civilization. [56 minutes]

  • Warnings from the Ice (#2508)

    Could the world be facing the next deluge -- a catastrophic rise in sea levels -- as a result of the rapid break-up of the mammoth Antarctic ice sheets? The ice sheets hold 70% of the world's fresh water in a deep freeze cold enough to shatter steel, but now scientists are racing to understand whether the recent calving of a Rhode Island-sized iceberg signals the beginning of a giant meltdown. If a meltdown occurred, the resulting rise in sea levels would leave many coastlines covered, from New Orleans to London. "NOVA" explores the causes of the ice's warming, how it will influence world climates, and who will be affected. [56 minutes]

  • Crocodiles! with David Attenborough (#2509)

    "NOVA" takes an unprecedented look at a dangerous predator, the crocodile, in the second of three natural history programs hosted by Sir David Attenborough. Surviving virtually unchanged since the days of the dinosaur and found throughout the world, these remarkable creatures have the tools for survival. Long known as viscous hunters, new photographic techniques now allow us to see them cooperating with each other and protecting their families. From tiny babies hatching from the shell, we see them grow into great beasts capable of standing up to the lion and bringing down a zebra. [56 minutes]

  • The Truth About Impotence (#2510)

    This program examines male erectile dysfunction and its medical treatments. The program profiles several men who have experienced this problem, explores its physiological and psychological aspects, and explains different treatments for the condition. [56 minutes]

  • Lost at Sea: The Search for Longitude (#2511)

    It was one of humankind's most epic quests - a technical problem so complex that it challenged the best minds of its time; a problem so important that the nation that solved it would rule the economy of the world. The problem was navigation by sea - how to know where you were when you sailed beyond the sight land - the finding of your longitude. While the gentry of the eighteenth century looked to the stars for the answer, an English clock maker, John Harrison, toiled for decades to solve the problem. His elegant solution made him an unlikely hero and remains the basis for the most modern forms of navigation in the world today. This film is both a celebration of Harrison's invention and an adventure story. An expedition on a period sailing vessel as it journeys to the open ocean will demonstrate the life and death importance of finding your longitude at sea. [56 minutes]

  • Chasing El Nino! (#2512)

    A massive planet-sized machine controls the world's weather day-by-day, and the climate season by season. It takes an event of staggering proportions to disrupt a machine this large and powerful, a juggernaut with more energy than a million nuclear bombs. Such an event is underway -- El Nino. El Nino is second only to the seasons in its effect on global weather. As scientists push to extremes to explore this phenomenon, they are understanding for the first time the extent to which all the world's weather is connected -- and just how delicate is the balance. [56 minutes]

  • Terror In Space (#2513)

    This episode surveys the harrowing and life-threatening problems aboard the aging Mir space station through the eyes of the Russian cosmonauts and American astronauts who lived through them: the heat from the fire that erupted on board; the collision between Mir and another spacecraft; the power outages and computer failures that have jeopardized lives. The program also presents the debate about whether NASA should continue to imperil its astronauts by sending them to Mir in preparation for the launch later this year of the most ambitious space project yet -- the International Space Station. [56 minutes]

  • Special Effects of "Titanic" and Beyond (#2514)

    NOVA goes behind the scenes of Hollywood's biggest blockbuster ever, "Titanic," and shows viewers how James Cameron achieved his spectacular vision. The program also reveals the secrets behind the explosions on the set of "The X-Files Movie" and the painstaking work that went into the animations in "Flubber." [56 minutes]

  • Deadly Shadow of Vesuvius (#2515)

    There are more than 1400 active volcanoes on this planet. Many of these are in remote places where they present little risk to anyone. Some are situated in the middle of populated areas and, although inactive, have troublesome histories. One is Mt. Vesuvius, which dominates the Bay of Naples and obliterated the ancient Roman city of Pompeii. Geological evidence suggests that Vesuvius, dormant since 1944, is on the move again. This program looks at new scientific measurements of this infamous volcano, at the threat posed by a new eruption to the more than two million people who live under its shadow and at the critical day in 79 AD when Pompeii was obliterated. [56 minutes]

  • Frozen In Heaven/Siberian Ice Maiden/Return of the Iceman (#2516)

    Follow an archeological expedition to a high-altitude sacred site in search of Inca ritual remains. [110 minutes]

  • Ice Mummies: Siberian Ice Maiden (#2517)

    The Siberian Ice Lady, discovered in the Pastures of Heaven on the high steppes, is believed to have been a shamaness of the lost Pazyryk culture. She had been mummified and then, along with six decorated horses and a symbolic meal for her last journey, frozen by freak climatic conditions around 2,400 years ago. Her body was covered with vivid blue tattoos of mythical animal figures. Together with the newly discovered body of a man nicknamed "Conan," she is providing new clues to the role and power of women among the nomadic peoples of ancient Siberia. [56 minutes]

  • Ice Mummies: Return of the Iceman (#2518)

    Cutting-edge science and archaeology are reconstructing the life and culture of the Iceman--the 5,000-year-old frozen corpse found buried in the ice of the Alps. By analyzing every inch of the Iceman's body and the tools and equipment found with it, scientists are piecing together the most complete picture yet of the late Stone Age in this part of Europe. X-ray, CAT scan and microscopic analysis of this important find is revealing where the Iceman lived, what he ate and how he may have died; nuclear physics reveals that the Iceman's hair was contaminated with arsenic and copper, suggesting he was involved in copper production centuries before it was known to exist in the region. [56 minutes]

  • Leopards of the Night (#2519)

    This program hosted by Sir David Attenborough reveals that leopard society is much more complex and far less solitary than originally believed. Filmed with state-of-the-art camera equipment in the Luangua Valley in Zambia, "Leopards" observes these night stalkers around the clock, revealing the challenges and dangers faced daily by these beautiful animals. Shadowed by hungry hyenas in pursuit of leftovers and stalked by lumbering crocodiles hoping to tackle a lone leopard on a kill, how can they hope to challenge such beasts? [56 minutes]

  • The Perfect Pearl (#2520)

    Revel in the luster of these desirable gems, from the ocean's depths to the riches of Fifth Avenue. [56 minutes]

  • The Beast of Loch Ness (#2601)

    Is it just a fairy tale, or could a primeval beast lurk in the deep, dark waters of a Scottish lake? Since it was in first reported over 60 years ago, hundreds claim to have seen the Loch Ness Monster, while one scientist after another has brought the latest technology to the loch to probe the phenomenon. Twenty-five years after their first, groundbreaking expedition to Loch Ness, NOVA joins two American scientists as they return to Scotland for one last go at Nessie. During a three-week expedition, they use state- of-the-art sonar and sensitive underwater cameras in an attempt to track down and identify the elusive beast. [56 minutes]

  • Submarines, Secrets, and Spies (#2602)

    At the height of the Cold War, U.S. subs gathered secrets that neither spies nor satellites could expose. Until recently, almost nobody knew the hidden history of their tragedies and triumphs. As the U.S. strove for supremacy in the Cold War, it pushed submarine technology to its limits. Breakthroughs led to unparalleled triumphs of espionage. And, missteps cost hundreds their lives. With recently declassified film, NOVA lifts the veil on tragic and mysterious submarine accidents and their high-risk spy missions that helped win the Cold War. Along with celebrated oceanographer and explorer Robert Ballard (discoverer of the Titanic), NOVA goes in search of clues to two tragedies of the Cold War, the wrecks of the nuclear submarines Thresher and Scorpion. [56 minutes]

  • Surviving Aids (#2603)

    In laboratories and clinics across the country and around the world, scientists and doctors have pooled their expertise to keep people infected with HIV alive and disease-free longer than was imaginable at the start of the epidemic. NOVA tells the story of this ongoing battle through the experiences of patients like Robert Massie, a " long-term non-progressor." Massie, a 43-year old environmental activist and Episcopalian minister, was infected by a blood transfusion in 1978 and after an acute period of illness, somehow his immune system has kept the HIV virus at bay without drugs. SURVIVING AIDS reveals the scientific community engaged in an enormous and ongoing struggle, with discoveries traveling from labs to patients and back. [56 minutes]

  • Escape! Because Accidents Happen (#2604)

    When the Great Fire of London was raging in 1666, there were no water pumps, no hoses, no hydrants, a limited supply of available water, and, worst of all, no trained firefighters to battle this ferocious enemy. This episode follows two thousand years of human effort to be safe from fire. Some of the most ingenious fire fighting inventions have come at a terrible price. Others, like the remarkable story behind the creation of the automatic sprinkler, were born of genius and the unassailable knowledge that the best way to survive a fire is to prevent it. [114 minutes]

  • Escape! Because Accidents Happen - Car Crash (#2605)

    While today's cars are safer than they've ever been, automobile safety has come slowly and at the expense of millions of lives. This episode focuses on the unheralded heroes of automobile safety: Dr. Claire Straith, a Detroit plastic surgeon who fought in the 1920's to get padded dashboards and recessed knobs installed in cars to protect his patient's faces in an accident; Bela Berenyi, a Mercedes engineer who changed the way cars were designed and built with the invention of crumple zones and rigid cab construction; Nils Bohlin, the Volvo engineer who holds the patent for the single most effective safety device in any car -- the seat belt; and John Hetrick, the unsung inventor of the airbag whose work was 20 years too early. [56 minutes]

  • Escape! Because Accidents Happen (Eject/Abandon Ship) (#2606)

    From the invention of the parachute to the ejection seat and escape systems created for NASA, to commercial airliners, this episode follows the history of aircraft safety. There are many heroic tales of aviators and aero-engineers who risked their own lives to save others. [114 minutes]

  • Battle Alert in the Gulf (#2608)

    At the height of tensions in the Middle East, the United States placed a huge armada at ground zero in the Persian Gulf. This strategic move was without precedent during peace time operations--a big stick waved at a defiant Saddam Hussein. In an ironic twist of timing, at the center of this massive military force was the Navy's oldest and most celebrated aircraft carrier, the USS Independence, on her final voyage, and the newest, the highly sophisticated nuclear powered submarine, the USS John C. Stennis, on her maiden voyage. Join NOVA as it moves with exclusive access throughout the fleet, from carriers and cruisers to submarines and jet fighters. [56 minutes]

  • Volcanoes of the Deep (#2609)

    The deep sea was long considered a barren place, devoid of sunlight and inhospitable to life. Now, scientists are witnessing how deep sea volcanoes can support oases of astounding creatures. These oases hold clues to how life might exist elsewhere in the universe, and to how life itself may have begun on Earth. At the heart of these systems lie "black smoker" chimneys, towering structures which spew acidic and scalding water heated by volcanoes beneath the ocean floor. These seemingly hostile environments are teeming with exotic life. Join NOVA on an expedition which journeys to this remote realm to first capture extraordinary imagery, and then, in an exceptional feat of deep sea engineering, lifts from the depths several of these giant chimneys and the life they harbor. The massive structures now offer scientists an unprecedented chance to reveal the secrets of deep sea volcanoes-how life can thrive in eternal darkness, and even how life itself originated. [56 minutes]

  • To The Moon (#2610)

    For two hours in July of 1969, the world stood still as man landed and walked on the moon. Tens of millions watched it happen, on blurry black and white television, beamed back a quarter million miles across the heavens. For the first time in human history, all mankind could observe a profound discovery as it happened. This two-hour special television event marks the 30th anniversary of the greatest science and engineering adventure of all-time-going-behind the scenes to tell the stories the astronauts and the unsung heroes of lunar exploration. [116 minutes]

  • Fall of the Leaning Tower (#2611)

    Even before it was finished 800 years ago, the Leaning Tower of Pisa, a masterpiece of medieval architecture, began to topple, shaken by earthquakes and sinking slowly into the unstable soil. Today, the top hangs just 16 feet over the base and collapse seems imminent. NOVA follows a decade-long search for a solution to correct the lean and save the unique building. State-of-the-art computer models, ingenious experiments with models and a string of near-disasters eventually push an international committee of prominent engineers and architects into an eleventh-hour decision. [56 minutes]

  • Time Travel (#2612)

    Is time travel anything more than sci-fi fantasy? Many leading physicists now believe that time travel is possible and are discussing how to build a time machine. Physicist Kip Thorne tells NOVA how humankind's infinitely advanced descendants might go about achieving it with "quantum wormholes" and some "exotic matter." Demonstrating that faster than light travel may be possible, German physicist Guenter Nimtz claims to have transmitted Mozart's 40th Symphony across his lab at 4.7 times the speed of light. The truth about time travel is wrapped up in the details of how the universe works and how it all began. Mind-boggling as these perspectives are, NOVA dramatizes them in a playful and visually dazzling style that sweeps viewers along on the ultimate thrill ride. [56 minutes]

  • The Killer's Trail (#2613)

    The death of Marilyn Sheppard in 1954 is one of the most famous unsolved murders in America. The indictment of her husband, Dr. Sam Sheppard, quickly became the "Trail of the Century," then the " Retrial of the Century, " making a celebrity of lawyer F. Lee Bailey. Although most of the forensic evidence gathered in 1954 was ignored during Sheppard's trail, it is being reexamined with today's advanced technology. Like an intricate puzzle, the clues come together to overturn previous assumptions about the killer and point to an entirely new suspect. NOVA assembles a notable team of experts--including Barry Sheck, a well-known lawyer from the O.J. Simpson trail--and builds a precise replica of the Sheppard house, complete with the original furniture. With this revisiting of a vanished crime scene, NOVA investigates a horrifying and sensational milestone in forensic science. [56 minutes]

  • Island of the Spirits (#2614)

    In the far north of Japan, thrust out into the north Pacific, is the remote island of Hokkaido. It's a land of towering volcanoes and steaming lakes, marshy valleys and fairy tale forests. Among this magical scenery, where summers are brief and winters are fierce, lives an extraordinary spectrum of life, found nowhere else in Japan. Here among the coastal lowlands, grizzly bears plunge into icy streams for salmon, Japanese cranes perform balletic courtship dances to one another, the rare and enormous Blakistons fish owl swoops on flying squirrels and white-tailed eagles scan the rugged ocean cliffs for unsuspecting seabirds. [56 minutes]

  • Decoding Nazi Secrets (#2615)

    By the summer of 1940, Hitler had conquered nearly all of Europe and surrender seemed only weeks away. But Winston Churchill had a secret weapon - the world's most curious military unit, known as Station X. In a converted English country mansion, crossword fanatics, chess champions, mathematicians and Egyptologists from both sides of the Atlantic gathered with a common goal - to break Enigma, the impregnable code machine that turned all German radio signals into gibberish. The saga of how Station X broke Enigma and helped turn the tide of the war is one of the most dramatic and least known stories of World War II. This program tells the full story of Station X, drawing on vivid interviews with many of the colorful geniuses and eccentrics who attacked Enigma. The program also features meticulous period reenactments shot inside the original buildings at Station X, including re-creations of the world's first computing devices that aided codebreakers. [116 minutes]

  • Voyage of Doom (#2616)

    Buried in shallow mud beneath the waters of Matagorda Bay in Texas lies the only remnant of a tragic episode from the Age of Discovery. In the 1680s, France hatched an ambitious plan to control the whole of North America by seizing the Mississippi trade route. Led by the fanatical explorer La Salle, four ships set sail in search of the mouth of the great river, but all were lost or wrecked. After 20 years of searching for La Salle's last ship, a nautical archeologist finally came across a promising magnetic anomaly on the bed of Matagorda Bay. The ensuing investigation revealed the wreck of the La Belle, loaded with tantalizing clues to what happened in the final ill-fated days of La Salle's expedition. In an unprecedented excavation, the team discovered that the mud had preserved a wealth of organic material -- the ship's wooden hull, leather shoes and even a skeleton. [56 minutes]

  • Electric Heart (#2617)

    This episode tells the dramatic story of a handful of brilliant surgeons and researchers who have pursued the target of a practical artificial heart for more than three decades. The program dramatizes their intense rivalries and frequent battles against the skepticism of the medical establishment. Among the many colorful characters are the legendary doctors Michael DeBakey, Denton Cooley and Robert Jarvik, who is about to implant his new device, the Jarvik 2000, for the first time. NOVA records the operation and its outcome. [56 minutes]

  • Tales from the Hive (#2701)

    NOVA chronicles a year in the life of a bee colony with stunning images that take viewers inside the innermost secrets of the hive. The documentary team spent a year developing special macro lenses and a bee studio to deliver the film's astonishing sequences. These include the "wedding flight" of the colony's virgin queen as she mates in mid-air with a drone; the life-and-death battle between two rival queens for the colony's throne; and the defeat and death of a thieving wasp at the entrance to the hive. The show also explores such mysteries as the famous " waggle dance" with which scout bees signal the direction and distance of nectar sources to the rest of the hive. A vivid picture emerges of the bees' highly organized social life, revolving around the disciplined sharing of construction tasks, the collection of nectar, and warding off enemies. TALES FROM THE HIVE pushes the boundaries of wildlife filmmaking and opens up an unforgettable window on a strange and complex insect world. [56 minutes]

  • Lost On Everest (#2702)

    On June 8, 1924, near the summit of the highest peak on earth, British climber George Leigh Mallory vanished into the clouds and instantly became a legendary figure. Did Mallory and his companion Andrew Irving actually make it to the top of Everest 29 years before Hillary and Tensing? Could they possibly have survived the ferocious condiditons of the summit, clad only in layers of cotton and tweed and wearing hobnailed boots? For over half a century, climbing aficionados could only speculate. Then, in May 1999, a NOVA expedition located Mallory's body on a rock-strewn precipice, creating an international news sensation. What light does the new discovery throw on mountaineering's most haunting mystery? NOVA presents the exclusive footage of the final of Mallory's body and the new clues to his final hours on the world's most forbidding mountain. [56 minutes]

  • The Diamond Deception (#2703)

    Today science is closing in on an impossible dream: the ability to manufacture gem-quality diamonds in a few days, instead of the billions of years required by nature. These synthetic diamonds are such good copies of the real thing that they not only have the identical atomic structure but can even replicate their flaws. Even the most sophisticated machines can scarcely distinguish the difference. More important, these diamonds can be made and sold at a handsome profit. In THE DIAMOND DECEPTION, NOVA dramatizes the breakneck battle in the 1950s as a team at General Electric beat its rivals to synthesize the first industrial diamonds. Then the show explores today's race to produce the first artificial gem-quality stones. [56 minutes]

  • Trillion Dollar Bet (#2704)

    What if you could exactly predict the ups and downs of the stock market in advance, so you could bet without risk on the hottest stocks? It's every investor's secret fantasy, and an impossible dream. Or is it? In TRILLION DOLLAR BET, NOVA tells the astonishing story of a mathematical formula with the power to turn the world and its financial markets upside-down. Its ardent followers believed the formula would bring them untold riches and power. To the two young mathematicians who invented it, it brought the 1997 Nobel Prize for economics. But this glittering tale would end in tragedy. In TRILLION DOLLAR BET, NOVA follows the riches-to-rags story of two brilliant minds who sought to bring reason and science into the world of investment, and how their efforts collapsed in an irrational panic that swept the world's markets. [56 minutes]

  • Mystery of the First Americans (#2705)

    In 1996, near Kennewick, Washington, a suspected murder victim was identified by forensic anthropoligists as Caucasian -- but turned out to be almost 10,000 years old. For 50 years our picture of prehistoric America has rested on the premise that the earliest inhabitants of the Americas were east Asians of mongoloid stock, the ancestors of today's Native Americans. But the discovery of the Kennewick Man, along with several other startling finds in recent years, has thrown that once widely accepted idea into question and revolutionized the science of paleo-anthropology. It has also embroiled scientists in a bitter conflict with Native American groups who want the scientific study of early Americans halted. Who and what do Kennewick Man and others represent? NOVA is following the efforts of paleo-anthropologists working to decode the story in the bones of people who died 10,000 years ago. [56 minutes]

  • Lost Tribes of Israel (#2706)

    At the heart of Jewish tradition lies the haunting mystery of the Lost Tribes of Israel. Ever since their defeat and banishment by the Assyrians in 722 BC, the Lost Tribes' fate has inspired countless claims to Jewish ancestry by groups scattered on every continent. But now, surprisingly, new advances in genetics are dispelling myth and fantasy, and raising a curtain on the forgotten reality of the dispersal that happened so many centuries ago. This story will follow the first attempt to use the new tests to investigate a seemingly improbable African candidate for a Lost Tribe. It will dramatize a scientific quest that leads from the gene labs of London to the remote bush country of Zimbabwe and the lunar-like desert wilderness of southern Yemen. [56 minutes]

  • Stationed in the Stars (#2707)

    This program profiles the International Space Station, a joint effort between the U.S. and 14 international partners. Focusing on a crucial turning point, the Russian delivery of the Service Module, the program presents the risks and hazards of long-term operations in space, and the vision and audacity that lie behind this project. [56 minutes]

  • The Vikings (#2708)

    In a dramatic two-hour special, NOVA tells the story of a people who were much more than ax-wielding pirates. Featuring stunning camera work in Scandinavia and the far-flung countries that the Vikings penetrated, the program shows just how bold, energetic and hardy these warriors were and retraces Viking voyages in faithful replicas of their magnificent ships, trying to determine how they were able to navigate so far beyond the sight of land in the stormy north Atlantic. [109 minutes]

  • The Vikings, Part II (#2709)

    In a dramatic two-hour special, NOVA tells the story of a people who were much more than ax-wielding pirates. Featuring stunning camerawork in Scandinavia and the far-flung countries that the Vikings penetrated, the program shows just how bold, energetic and hardy these warriors were and retraces Viking voyages in faithful replicas of their magnificent ships, trying to determine how they were able to navigate so far beyond the sight of land in the stormy north Atlantic. [56 minutes]

  • Lincoln's Secret Weapon (#2710)

    This is the story of an armored combat vessel that opened a new chapter in naval warfare. At a critical moment of the American Civil War in 1861, the Navy commissioned the USS Monitor to test a daring idea -- that a mechanical fighting machine could inflict a crushing defeat on Confederate forces. Not long after its legendary confrontation with the ironclad Merrimac, the Monitor sank in stormy seas off Cape Hatteras. Almost a century and a half after these momentous events, NOVA's cameras follow the Navy's risky efforts to salvage the secrets of the Monitor as it lies rusting on the ocean bottom. [56 minutes]

  • Holocaust On Trial (#2711)

    On January 11, 2000, a trial opened in London's High Court that would prove to be a crucial test of Holocaust "deniers." British author David Irving brought a libel action against Deborah Lipstadt, author of Denying the Holocaust: The Growing Assault on Truth and Memory. In her book, Lipstadt characterized Irving as a "Hitler partisan" who manipulated the historical record to deny the reality of the Holocaust. In seeking damages, Irving claimed that her book destroyed his reputation. Interwoven with dramatized sequences that re-create the courtroom testimony and arguments are documentary segments that explore evidence with the aid of historians Hugh Trevor-Roper and Robert Harris, and Auschwitz authority Robert Jan van Pelt, among others. [56 minutes]

  • Hitler's Lost Sub (#2712)

    In 1991 a fishing boat snagged a net on an underwater object 60 miles off the coast of New Jersey. When divers went to investigate, they discovered a sunken German U-boat from World War II. The find was a grim reminder of the wartime slaughter of American ships by Nazi U-boats (named after the German word, Unterseeboot, for submarine). Oddly enough, a check of U.S. Navy and German War Patrol records showed that no clashes with subs occurred anywhere near the spot. If no one had attacked the sub, how did it sink? And which of the more than 1,100 German U-boats was it? As divers risked their lives to recover artifacts that might provide clues, the riddle only deepened. NOVA explores the strange saga of the mystery sub in a two-hour special, Hitler's Lost Sub, airing Tuesday, November 14 from 8 to 10pm on PBS (check local listings). The search leads from the wreck itself, at a perilous depth of 230 feet, to a U-boat archive in Germany, to the once super-secret intercepts of the Ultra code-breaking operation for the Allies. Along the way three members of the diving team tragically die, and a survivor of the mystery boat unexpectedly turns up. Leading the effort to identify the wreck are professional divers John Chatterton, Richard Kohler, and John Yurga. Six years go by before all the pieces of the puzzle fall together. Among the clues is a knife engraved with the name "Horenburg" and evidence of a massive rupture in the sub's hull_far more damage than would result from a typical depth charge attack. In addition to covering the sub saga, NOVA profiles the German submarine service, the most elite of all Nazi military units. With stunning "wolf pack" tactics they spread destruction throughout the Atlantic in the early years of the war. But later, the hunters became the hunted as successful Allied countermeasures made U-boat patrols virtual suicide missions. NOVA interviews surviving German submariners, including Erich Topp the commander of the boat that torpedoed the U.S. Navy destroyer Reuben James in October 1941, mistaking it for a British ship. Since the U.S. was neutral at the time, the incident could have catapulted America into war. But a few weeks later the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and Hitler's declaration of war on the U.S. made the issue moot. U-boats immediately began a massacre of merchant shipping along the U.S. east coast, called the "Happy Time" by German submariners. Gradually the U.S. Navy fought back_first with convoys escorted by warships and then with long-range air patrols equipped with radar to detect U-boats on the surface, where the subs had to spend most of their cruising time. U-boat radio transmissions also proved an Achilles' heel, both from "Huff-Duff," or high frequency direction finding, and Ultra, the celebrated decoding coup that allowed the Allies to read Nazi communications. These breakthroughs allowed sub hunters to pinpoint the positions of many U-boats and know their orders. By the time the mystery sub arrived at its station off New Jersey, probably in early 1945, the cards were heavily stacked against it. The irony is that no one ever detected its presence_until 1991. [116 minutes]

  • Runaway Universe (#2713)

    NOVA presents the first attempt on television to explore the riddle of quintessence -- a mysterious repulsive force that some scientists believe counteracts gravity. The program follows the efforts of two rival teams of astronomers as they search for exploding stars, map out gigantic cosmic patterns of galaxies and grapple with the ultimate questions: what is the size and shape of the universe, and how will it end? [56 minutes]

  • Garden of Eden (#2714)

    This journey to the Seychelles, a collection of pristine granite and coral islands about 1,000 miles east of Kenya, reveals a dramatic landscape of natural wealth and scientific value. The islands, among the oldest islands in the world, are home to a dazzling array of exotic plants and animals. One island, Praslin, boasts rare or unique species of geckos, snails, snakes, parrots and bats. Aldabra, the largest atoll in the world, harbors in its lagoon a profusion of wildlife: sharks, frigate birds with seven-foot wingspans, rare robber crabs, spectacularly colored parrot fish, mangrove forests and the world's largest colony of giant tortoises, numbering some 150,000. [56 minutes]

  • Dying to Be Thin (#2715)

    All across America, young girls are waging a dangerous battle with their own bodies. Unhappy with their appearance and often suffering low self-esteem, these girls -- many of whom are not overweight --embark on crash diets. The problem is growing on an alarming scale. Each year five to ten percent of the U.S. population will be diagnosed with eating disorders. Some girls succumb to anorexia, the deadliest of all mental illnesses, while even more young girls develop bulimia. "Dying to be Thin" also takes a special look at the ballet world, where dancers are routinely expected to maintain what is essentially an anorexic weight, and examines the chemical imbalance that scientists believe may contribute to anorexia. In all around nine million Americans suffer from anorexia, bulimia or a third, newly recognized syndrome called binge- eating disorder. However, secrecy is a hallmark of these illnesses, and many cases go unreported. NOVA examines the complex factors that lead to eating disorders and the therapies that can help their relief. [56 minutes]

  • Japan's Secret Garden (#2716)

    For at least 2,000 years, a unique way of life has flourished around the shores of Japan's largest freshwater lake, Lake Biwa, fed by more than 500 rivers that descend from the rugged, forested interior of Honshu island. To exploit the abundant mountain water, generations of farmers have transformed the foothills surrounding the lake into a maze of ingeniously engineered terraced fields. The balance between humans and nature is reflected in the Japanese name for the cultivated areas satoyama ("sato" - "village/people" and "yama" - " mountain/nature"). This documentary captures the subtle lessons and lush abundance of satoyama. [56 minutes]

  • Sultan's Lost Treasure (#2801)

    In the middle of the South China Sea, a six-hour voyage from the tiny Sultanate of Brunei, prospectors spot an ancient wreck on the sea bed. An international team of archaeologists dives down and begins retrieving a unique treasure -- more than 12,000 intact pieces of Chinese porcelain dating from the 15th century AD. The priceless cargo poses countless riddles as the archaeologists seek the identity of the ship and its destination, and the meaning of the strange symbols so delicately figured on the dishes. As the divers salvage the wreck, they gradually reconstruct the story of the world's first international trading network -- the ancestor of today's global marketplace. [56 minutes]

  • Vanished! (#2802)

    On August 2, 1947, Stardust, an airliner converted from a World War II bomber, took off from Buenos Aires, scheduled to cross the Andes en route to Santiago, Chile. It never arrived. The case of the vanished Stardust soon became one of aviation's most celebrated unsolved mysteries. Then in 1998, two mountaineers stumbled across a huge engine on the Tupangato glacier high in the Andes. Despite thorough searches of the glacier by previous expeditions, no wreckage had been sighted. The Argentine army led an arduous expedition to the crash site; after extensive detective work, they were able to reconstruct the doomed plane's final minutes and identify the human remains. Finally, they came up with a surprising theory to explain why the plane's wreckage had vanished for so long before mysteriously reappearing. [56 minutes]

  • Nazi Prison Escape (#2803)

    We've got to get out of this place At the height of World War II, German authorities began sending their most troublesome Allied prisoners to an impregnable fortress in eastern Germany. Colditz Castle was what they called their "bad boys' camp" the ultimate escape-proof prison. But without realizing it, they had brought together the best escape brains in the Allied forces and had given them an irresistible challenge. NOVA returns to Colditz with some of its former "bad boys," who reveal how they turned the art of escape into a science, on Nazi Prison Escape. While three hundred prisoners tried to break out of Colditz during the war, they never put the most audacious scheme into action. It was a full-scale glider, built in a hidden attic with handmade tools and scavenged floorboards and bed sheets. The war ended before the ingenious "Colditz Cock" could take wing, but NOVA painstakingly re-creates the glider to prison specifications and then puts it to the test. Another bold breakout scheme involved elaborate disguises that allowed three prisoners to impersonate a distinctive-looking sergeant and two guards and then bluff their way to the main gate for a dramatic confrontation with real guards. Escapees were often equipped with an array of necessities, such as maps, money, and identity papers. Typically, maps would be smuggled into Colditz stuck between peel-apart playing cards, cast into phonograph records, or hidden by some other James Bond-style ruse. Coded messages, intercepted on the camp's secret radio, would alert prisoners to watch for, say, a record of "The British Grenadiers" in a Red Cross parcel. Simply drop the record and voila! a map showing the route to the Swiss border. The map could then be reproduced by making offset copies from a plate of lemon gelatin. A thriving camp industry forged documents that would be needed on the outside. Also useful was a compass, conveniently included in Red Cross parcels in the guise of a pencil: simply remove the pocket clip from an ordinary-looking pencil, balance the clip on the point, and voila! north! Prisoners and even a German guard tell their stories about Colditz, as do a couple of Americans who helped liberate the camp in April 1945. Robert Miller was first into the fortress, armed to the teeth and not knowing what to expect. He was greeted by cheering prisoners. Eventually, they showed him the secret room with the glider. "It was amazing," he recalls. "There was a big map. . .they had a radio, they had everything!" [56 minutes]

  • Lost King of Maya (#2804)

    For over 20 years, a team led by archeaolgoist Bill Fash has been at the forefront of research into the ancient Maya kings of Central America. In 1999, NOVA's cameras were there to capture Fash's excavation of the burial site of the legendary ancestral king and original founder of Copan's dynasty. It was a stunning find, deep in a crypt beneath a pyramid. The royal burial also provided evidence of the historical reality behind the Maya's recently deciphered inscriptions, demonstrating that the Maya's rule was militaristic and war-like. NOVA's exploration of the turbulent Maya world presents the latest findings in one of archaeology's fastest moving, most provocative fields. [56 minutes]

  • Cancer Warrior (#2805)

    Odyssey of a treatment In the early 1960s, a young doctor named Judah Folkman embarked on a scientific voyage that would ultimately redefine our understanding of cancer. Today his persistence is paying off with a new class of drugs that fight tumors by cutting off their blood supply. In a television exclusive, NOVA tells the story of Folkman's forty-year quest to treat cancer with a revolutionary new strategy, on The Cancer Warrior, airing Tuesday, February 27 at 9pm ET on PBS (check local listings). In November 2000 an eagerly awaited report at an international cancer conference cautiously announced encouraging results from the first human trials with the drug Endostatin, discovered in Folkman's lab in 1996. Patients tolerated the drug well with few side effects, and in some cases tumors shrank markedly or stopped growing. Through extensive interviews with Folkman and members of his research team, NOVA charts the difficult detective work that led from a surprising observation and a controversial hypothesis to this promising new weapon against cancer. Participating in the Endostatin trials and other therapies pioneered by Folkman, who is professor of surgery at Children's Hospital in Boston and Harvard Medical School. In 1960 when he was a surgical resident, Folkman was drafted by the U.S. Navy to help find a substitute for whole blood to meet the navy's need for transfusable blood on long voyages. What he discovered instead was a startling secret about how cancer grows. It was a clue he would pursue for the next forty years. About ten years into this search, Folkman published a paper in which he speculated that tumors could not grow larger than the size of a pencil tip unless nourished by their own networks of tiny blood vessels. He speculated that the tumors themselves secrete a molecule that stimulates new blood vessels to grow, a process called angiogenesis. Almost none of Folkman's colleagues believed his theory, and for the next ten years, he searched for that molecule. Today seventeen such molecules have been discovered, and the theory is widely accepted. But Folkman wasn't satisfied with just understanding how cancer grows_he wanted to make it stop growing. So he began the search for a molecule that would block the growth of new blood vessels_essentially, starving the tumor. The problem was where to find it. The search began with the cartilage in cow bones. Because cartilage has no blood vessels, Folkman theorized that it might contain an angiogenesis inhibitor that keeps vessels away. Though the effort took more than a decade, Folkman's lab managed to track it down. Another inhibitor was found by a combination of luck and scientific detective work when a fungus blew into the lab. What seemed like a disaster, threatening to contaminate everyone's experiment, turned out to contain a molecule that inhibited the growth of blood vessels. Another approach created a new use for the notorious drug Thalidomide, which was discovered to inhibit new blood vessel growth. Thalidomide is a tranquilizer that caused severe birth defects when prescribed in Europe in the early 1960s as a morning sickness medication for pregnant women. It is now being used in clinical trials to treat some cancers. In 1987 Folkman suggested a startling new place to look for angiogenesis inhibitors: the tumor itself. Why would a tumor, which stimulates new blood vessel growth, produce an inhibitor of blood vessels? The answer not only led to the discovery of a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis, but also solved a century-old medical puzzle. It was long known that in some rare cases of cancer, the surgical removal of the primary tumor would be followed by a rapid growth of small metastases that had spread to other locations. Could the tumor itself be secreting a molecule that kept the metastases at bay? When the tumor was removed, did that also remove the inhibitor? After a series of ingenious experiments involving the collection and analysis of large amounts of mouse urine, such inhibitors were found: Endostatin and Angiostatin, natural proteins that prevent tumors from stimulating new blood vessel growth. Judah Folkman started his long journey as a lonely warrior in the battle against cancer. Today hundreds of labs around the world are working on angiogenesis. More than two dozen drugs that inhibit blood vessels are in development or in clinical trials. Many scientists believe that we are on the verge of a new paradigm in understanding cancer in which the disease is no longer viewed as a death sentence but as a disease that can be controlled with an arsenal of weapons used in combination to prevent tumor growth. [56 minutes]

  • Doctors IV: Survior Md - The Tattooed Doctor (#2806)

    In addition to sporting impressive body art, Tom Tarter rides a classic Harley-Davidson motorcycle and shoots skeet from his home near Bloomington, Indiana, where he is an emergency room physician at Bloomington Hospital. A native of Bronx, New York, Tarter started medical school at the relatively advanced age of 31. On the nights that NOVA films, his ER patients include a woman who lost the tip of her finger in a mysterious accident, another woman who fell out of a moving car and a gravely ill man with end-stage liver cirrhosis. [56 minutes]

  • Survivor Md - Second Opinions (#2807)

    SECOND OPINIONS features physicians Jane Liebschutz, Cheryl Dorsey and David Friedman. Jane Liebschutz is an internist at Boston Medical Center, where she specializes in underserved populations, domestic violence and women's health. Now it is Liebschutz's turn to need surgery, and NOVA covers a side of physicians that people rarely see: the way physicians themselves handle being patients. Cheryl Dorsey trained as a pediatrician but has given up clinical practice to serve as director of Public Health Initiatives for Danya Corporation, where she has returned to her pre-medical school passion for health policy. David Friedman is an ophthalmologist specializing in glaucoma at Dana Center for Preventive Ophthalmology at Johns Hopkins University, where he is an assistant professor. Unlike four other members of the group, who have suffered through rocky marriages and subsequent divorces, Friedman manages to combine a high-pressure medical career with a fulfilling family life. [60 minutes]

  • Survivor Md - Hearts and Minds (#2808)

    HEARTS AND MINDS features physicians Jay Bonner, Luanda Grazette and Elliott Bennett-Guerrero. Jay Bonner is a psychiatrist at McLean Hospital in Belmont, Massachusetts, and he is currently training to be a psychoanalyst at the Boston Psychoanalytic Institute. Though he deals only with his patients' minds, Bonner had to master every other aspect of the body during medical school and his internship. Luanda Grazette is a cardiologist at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, where she works on heart transplant research. She is part of a team that decides whether patients are suitable candidates for heart transplants. Elliott Bennett-Guerrero is an anesthesiologist and director of Cardiac Anesthesia at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center in New York City. NOVA films him during a tricky procedure called an off-pump coronary artery bypass graft, which is performed on a beating heart. [56 minutes]

  • Cracking The Code of Life (#2809)

    In June 2000, scientists made an announcement that triggered front-page headlines around the globe. The goal of "reading" more than three billion chemical"letters" that make up human DNA had been accomplished, and far more swiftly than anyone expected. It had been a neck-and-neck race between federally supported scientists of the Human Genome Project and the private start-up, Celera Genomics. NOVA's cameras recorded each twist and turn of the tense race between private and public scientists. This two-hour special presents the first in-depth attempt on television to investigate the implications of the genome project, exploring the impact the new knowledge will have on everyone's lives during the next century. [116 minutes]

  • Search for a Safe Cigarette (#2810)

    NOVA's fall season premiere investigates whether or not science can make a "safer" cigarette. As new brands with reduced emissions enter the market, NOVA probes the controversial quest for a less-toxic smoke. Are these products the answer to smoking-related illnesses? Or are they simply the latest marketing strategy to increase cigarette sales? [56 minutes]

  • 18 Ways to Make A Baby (#2811)

    With male couples having children through surrogates and donors, women over 60 having babies and babies being born with borrowed DNA, options open to infertile couples are wider than ever before. NOVA covers the latest chapter in the reproductive revolution. [56 minutes]

  • Secrets of the Mind (#2812)

    NOVA profiles the work of eminent brain researcher Dr. V.S. Ramachandran, who studies patients with bizarre neurological deficits. A fan of Sherlock Holmes, Dr. Ramachandran finds simple but intriguing clues that reveal the deep structure of emotion, perception and consciousness. [56 minutes]

  • Sex: Unknown (#2813)

    In 1965, a botched circumcision started an infant boy on a nightmare of medical meddling with his sexual identity. Born Bruce Reimer, he was surgically castrated at age two and then raised as a girl, only later to insist that he be called David and restored as a male. NOVA tells the scientific side of his disturbing story, which has implications for what defines sexuality. [56 minutes]

  • Russia's Nuclear Warriors (#2814)

    NOVA takes an intimate look at the men who are in control of Russia's nuclear missiles, standing just a heartbeat from the top Russian politicians and Armageddon. Hosted by Vladimir Pozner, Russia's top television journalist, this startling film shows that despite low pay and the tedious existence that these soldiers and their families live with, these men are motivated by a strong sense of patriotic duty and responsibility for the ultimate powers of destruction at their fingertips, in a job that requires complete perfection. [56 minutes]

  • Bioterror (#2815)

    NOVA offers an encore presentation of the one-hour version of " Bioterror" an examination of the origins and horrifying prospects of using bioterrorism as a new form of warfare. Produced in association with the New York Times and featuring Judith Miller (co-author of the) , best-selling book "Germs: Biological Weapons and America's Secret War" this special takes a timely look at the science behind bioterror agents and America's vulnerability to attack. It explores the covert biological revolution, which began in the United States, was perfected by the Soviet Union and later adopted by Iraq and terrorist cells around the world. [56 minutes]

  • Life's Greatest Miracle (#2816)

    NOVA treats viewers to a re-broadcast of the award-winning "Life's Greatest Miracle" (2002 Emmy Award for Outstanding Individual Achievement in a Craft: Writing, for Julia Cort), presenting stunning photography that looks at the complex inner workings of the human body. NOVA collaborated with Swedish science photographer Lennart Nilsson to combine breathtaking footage and state-of-the-art computer animation to show - in more complete detail than ever before - the making of a human life. [56 minutes]

  • Methuselah Tree (#2817)

    In this examination of the oldest living thing on earth, filmmakers travel 11,000 feet up to California's White Mountains, the location of a bristlecone pine that was around when the Egyptian pyramids were built. [56 minutes]

  • Flying Casanovas (#2818)

    When European explorers first found tiny decorated huts in the rain forests of New Guinea, they thought the huts were the homes of an unknown tribe of pygmies. In fact, they were bachelor pads built by the most remarkable of all animal architects, the bowerbird. NOVA explores the obsessive courtship practices of these love-struck flyboys with renowned British natural-history filmmaker Sir David Attenborough. [56 minutes]

  • Death Star (#2901)

    For 30 years, scientists have been on the hunt for the source of the most powerful and mysterious explosions in the universe. Defying their expectations, they have discovered that these powerful gamma ray bursts are located at the edges of the known universe. They are exploding so far back in time, when the cosmos had barely begun, that they conceal clues to the birth of the very first stars and black holes. This story also becomes an intensely personal saga of scientific competition, frustration and breakthrough. [56 minutes]

  • Neanderthals On Trial (#2902)

    In November of 1998, archaeologists made an extraordinary discovery of the remains of a 25,000- year-old child in central Portugal. The bones seem to present the most convincing evidence yet that Neanderthals were not exterminated or pushed into extinction but interbred with us. NOVA's crews covered this new discovery as it happened, with exclusive footage of how the scientists involved reached their stunning conclusion. [56 minutes]

  • Fireworks! (#2903)

    Reveals the colorful history of pyrotechnics and the chemical secrets that create dazzling displays. [56 minutes]

  • Secrets, Lies and Atomic Spies (#2904)

    NOVA reveals startling new evidence that Soviet spies penetrated America's deepest secrets, including the Manhattan Project, in the 1940s. By cracking the code of Soviet diplomatic cables, the FBI was able to hunt down "atom spies" such as Klaus Kuchs and Julius Rosenberg. But the true "master spy," a physicist named Ted Hall, got away, and his story is presented for the first time by NOVA. [56 minutes]

  • The Missing Link (#2905)

    According to the theory of evolution, all four-limbed animals-everything from human beings to dinosaurs-descend from a single creature, the first to crawl from water onto land. NOVA probes new clues about the nature and identity of this mysterious creature on The Missing Link. [56 minutes]

  • Shackleton's Voyage of Endurance (#2906)

    In 1914, Sir Ernest Shackleton boarded the Endurance with a team of seamen and scientists, determined to be the first to cross the Antarctic continent. But when the pack ice closed in and crushed their frail wooden ship, Shackleton and his men found themselves stranded 1,200 miles from civilization with little hope of rescue. For the next 14 months, they set out on a harrowing journey across the ice, subsisting mainly on penguins and seals. When the ice broke up, Shackleton saved his men by embarking on a heroic 800-mile voyage in a tiny rowboat across the treacherous South Atlantic. Amazingly, all Shackleton's men survived their ordeal. Although many are now familiar with this epic story, NOVA presents a definitive two-hour documentary that includes spectacular footage of Antarctic locations and moving interviews with descendants of the original expedition team. [116 minutes]

  • Why The Towers Fell (#2907)

    In the aftermath of the collapse, the questions came quickly and urgently: was it inevitable that such a severely damaged structure would completely collapse? Or was there something about the building' s design or construction that made it especially susceptible to failure? What exactly caused that failure-fire, heat, internal damage? Was the evacuation plan adequate enough to save the maximum number of lives? And are other tall buildings just as vulnerable to collapse when the blast is great and the fire uncontrolled? In the gray wasteland of smoke and dust and mangled steel that was once the third tallest building in the world, forensic engineers began sifting the wreckage for clues and answers to these and other structural truths. This blue-ribbon team of engineers is nearing the end of its task, and NOVA has been there from the beginning, following its investigation of the causes of the calamity. Why the Towers Fell presents the engineers' conclusions in the most definitive explanation yet of how and why the towers collapsed. But the Twin Towers weren't the only buildings that collapsed. Standing well over a city block from Trade Center Tower #1, a forty-eight-story glass and steel structure known simply as Building #7 did not seem to suffer structural damage from the collapsing towers but nonetheless crashed to the ground after several hours of severe and uncontrolled fire. Since Building #7 is a typical glass and steel building and seems to have collapsed from fire alone, does this mean that office workers the world over are far more vulnerable than anyone ever imagined? Featuring many of this country's best structural engineers including Gene Corley, the lead investigator on the Oklahoma City bombing; Charles Thornton, the builder of the Petronas Towers (the world's tallest building); and Mark Loiseaux, the leading expert on the "purposeful" demolition of big buildings, the program takes viewers through the process by which these professionals came to understand the how's and why's of one of modern America's greatest tragedies. Also presented are several of the buildings' survivors, who tell compelling real-life stories of their harrowing journeys to safety, including three firemen who miraculously escaped death as Tower #2 collapsed around them. With rare, video-enhanced footage showing details of the buildings' structural damage never before seen on TV, and detailed animation sequences that let viewers "see through" the buildings to the damage that had occurred inside, this NOVA promises to be one of its most harrowing and memorable hours. [56 minutes]

  • Fire Wars (#2908)

    Every year, uncontrollable wildfires ravage the American West, and every year armies of firefighters mobilize to save threatened wilderness and communities. NOVA accompanied the men and women of the Arrowhead Hotshots during the summer of 2000, as they worked on the biggest fire of the season, the Clear Creek fire that burned for almost two months. The program also looks back at a century of fire policy. This show combines action scenes with a look at the long relationship between humans and fire. [116 minutes]

  • Killer Disease On Campus (#2909)

    Every year in the U.S., 3,000 people are struck down by a potentially lethal bacterial infection that attacks mainly children under five years old and teenagers. Now the disease may be on the rise on college campuses. Commonly known as meningococcal meningitis, it strikes quickly and unexpectedly; symptoms can be so vague and unspecific in the early stages that no alarm bells sound until it's too late. From feeling slightly unwell, a victim may have multi-system failure in hours. Few other life-threatening infections can spread so rapidly. NOVA's special looks at the signs that can signal the disease and how doctors throughout the world are attempting to combat what has become, in some countries, a scourge of epidemic proportions. It also questions why more is not being done in the U.S. to vaccinate those at highest risk, such as college students, to prevent needless death and suffering. [56 minutes]

  • The Mysterious Life of Caves (#2910)

    Exploring Carlsbad Caverns in New Mexico, geologists Carol Hill and Dave Jagnow stumbled across a startling find - giant blocks of a mineral that conventional theories said shouldn't be there. This discovery set them on the trail of a radically new explanation of how certain caves form, involving microbes that live off toxic hydrogen sulfide gas and literally eat away the rock (since one of their byproducts is sulfuric acid). At the time of Hill and Jagnow's initial investigations, the idea that microbes could flourish in total darkness and help etch huge underground caverns was revolutionary. The quest to prove the theory has led scientists to the depths of some of the world's most spectacular caverns, including the more than 100-mile maze of passages in Lechuguilla, New Mexico, the longest and deepest cave known in the Americas, and the site of dazzling calcite and crystal formations. NOVA's crews, among the few admitted to this fragile and pristine underground wilderness, captured spectacular footage. Eventually the theory was confirmed at the bizarre Cueva de Villa Luz in Mexico, where the walls are dripping with sulfuric acid strong enough to burn human skin. This story of a hidden world of underground life and scientists with a maverick theory is a classic NOVA: a provocative idea, involving an adventure of discovery to some of the world's most spectacular locations. [56 minutes]

  • Lost Roman Treasure (#2911)

    At the height of the Roman Empire, an opulent city stood at the eastern frontier on the most important crossing of the Euphrates River. Called Zeugma ("junction") after the bridge that linked its opposite banks, the city disappeared into history after the empire fell. Now its remains are about to disappear beneath a mammoth reservoir. NOVA records the frantic scramble to recover the glory that was Zeugma. Buried by centuries of silt and dirt, Zeugma was long neglected by archaeologists, until the rising edifice of a nearby hydroelectric dam forced them to act quickly before the site was flooded. [56 minutes]

  • Galileo's Battle for the Heavens (#2912)

    In a two-hour special, NOVA vividly reconstructs an epic historical confrontation: the bitter clash between a fiery scientific genius, Galileo Galilei, and the church authorities who tried to suppress his astonishing discoveries. British actor Simon Callow (Four Weddings and a Funeral, Shakespeare in Love) plays Galileo in dramatic reenactments of key moments from his life: his pioneer telescope observations of the moon and planets, his revolutionary experiments with falling objects and his fateful trial before the Inquisition for heresy. The program draws partly from Dava Sobel's recent best-seller, Galileo's Daughter, which reveals an unexpected side to this notoriously stubborn scientist - that his closest confidante was his illegitimate daughter, Sister Maria Celeste, a cloistered nun. With scenes shot in their original historical locations in Italy and contributions from noted Galileo authorities, "Galileo" vividly re-imagines a momentous conflict that forever changed the way human beings view their place in the universe. [116 minutes]

  • Volcano's Deadly Warning (#2913)

    In January 1993, six scientists and three hikers were scalded and crushed to death when they ventured into the smoking mouth of the active volcano Galeras in Colombia, confident that no eruption was imminent. NOVA tells the gripping story of this controversial field trip and the quest to predict when volcanoes will blow. Tragically, the key to Galeras's impending eruption may have been in plain sight, though inadvertently missed by trip leader Stanley Williams of Arizona State University. Williams has subsequently been accused of ignoring the clues and leading his colleagues into a deathtrap, from which only he and a handful of others escaped. [56 minutes]

  • Sinking City of Venice (#2914)

    Today's tourists often need wading boots to explore the architectural wonders of Venice. Will they one day need diving suits? NOVA covers the battle to keep the world's most unusual city from drowning beneath the rising tides of the Adriatic Sea. For centuries, Venetians have been fighting the forces of nature that threaten to alter their city's precarious relationship with the encircling lagoon that has long served as protection from invading armies. [56 minutes]

  • Orchid Hunter (#2915)

    In 2000, orchid enthusiast Tom Hart Dyke, then 24, was looking for orchids in South America when he was kidnapped by Colombian guerrillas. Nine months in captivity in the jungle gave Tom plenty of experience of tropical orchids, and on his release, he was even more passionate about the flowers than before. Now, he's determined to find a new species of orchid to name after his inspirational grandmother, and is convinced that Papua New Guinea offers the best chance. It's part of the second largest island in the world, and only 5% of it has ever been explored by botanists. Most scientists are reluctant to work there because of the ever-present threat of kidnapping and the extremely hostile working environment, inhabited to this day by groups of cannibals and head-hunters. [56 minutes]

  • Spies That Fly (#3001)

    NOVA reveals the exploits of America's secret weapon in the air war over Afghanistan: unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). These smart robots fly, spy and shoot in places too risky for human pilots to venture. Today's pilotless planes are just a taste of what the future holds, from tiny flyers that can fit in your pocket to super-efficient jets that soar halfway around the world. [56 minutes]

  • Last Flight of Bomber 31 (#3002)

    A U.S. military team discovers the wreckage of a World War II bomber on the edge of a volcano in the remote wilderness of Kamchatka, Russia. Nearby are the remains of several, but not all, of its crew. Who were these men and what was their role in the war? Is there any explanation for the crash? And, what became of the missing crewmembers, listed as missing-in-action since 1944? Their families have had to live for decades with questions about the fate of their courageous sons - until now. In a wild and hostile Russian wilderness, a team of aviation experts and forensic scientists set out to reclaim an important piece of history and bring closure to seven American families. [56 minutes]

  • Ancient Creature of the Deep (#3003)

    With a saga steeped in science and popular imagination, the Coelacanth (see-la-kanth) is no ordinary fish. This 400-million year old "living fossil" predates the dinosaurs by millions of years and was thought to have gone extinct with them 70 million years ago. The discovery of a living coelacanth near the tip of South Africa in 1938 shook the scientific world, and is considered to be one of the most important discoveries of the 20th century. With its limb-like fins, this bizarre creature looked like the fabled "missing link" -- the interim step between primitive creatures that lived only in water and amphibious forms that began the inhabitation of land. This is the fascinating story of this mysterious survivor -- the coelacanth --and of the devoted scientists who brought it to the attention of the world. [56 minutes]

  • Battle of the X-Planes (#3004)

    Two aviation giants, Lockheed Martin and Boeing, compete to build the next generation fighter jet and win the largest government contract ever awarded, estimated at one trillion dollars. For more than five years, with unprecedented access from the Pentagon, NOVA followed the trials and tribulations of this neck-and-neck design war. The program gives a unique inside perspective on every phase of the competition, from design and assembly to the thrilling test flights that eventually led to the triumphant victory of Lockheed's plane. [116 minutes]

  • Mountain of Ice (#3005)

    Set in a monochromatic landscape of white ice and snow, this film brings the audience face to face with ice. Mountaineers and scientists explore Antarctica's highest peak, the Vinson Massif. The film is told through the voice of Jon Krakauer, mountaineer and best-selling author of Into Thin Air. This present-day expedition is interwoven with a look back at the race between Scott and Amundsen to reach the South Pole in 1912; Krakauer considers why one team failed and the other succeeded. The team's geologist, Dan Stone, conducts a study to better understand whether Antarctica is shrinking or growing. [56 minutes]

  • Lost Treasures of Tibet (#3006)

    In April 2001, the fourth and final year of work resumed on a race against time: the complicated and daunting mission of restoring an ancient Tibetan Buddhist monastery of magnificent proportions, housing extraordinary art -- damaged by weather and warped from age and infirmity -- unequaled in Asian monasteries. Can science save the last surviving masterpieces in Tibetan Buddhist art? [56 minutes]

  • Dirty Bomb (#3007)

    In the summer of 2002, an American al Qaeda sympathizer, Jose Padilla, was arrested on suspicion of planning a "dirty bomb" attack on the United State. Suddenly, one of the ultimate nightmare terrorist scenarios seemed a step closer to reality. But few know what a dirty bomb really is or what devastation it could cause. In this film, NOVA goes beyond the alarming headlines to answer crucial questions: How easy is it to acquire materials and manufacture a dirty bomb? How does one differ from a conventional nuclear bomb, and how destructive would it be? How can lives be saved if one should explode? The program dramatizes two credible attack scenarios base on sophisticated models developed by radiation experts. These models are then played out in two major cities, Washington, DC, and London, with results that are both frightening and sobering. [56 minutes]

  • Deep Sea Invasion (#3008)

    French biologist Alexandre Meinesz was diving in the Mediterranean when he spotted a strange blanket of bright green plants on the seabed. Meinesz was alarmed to find that the toxic algae were decimating marine life in the Mediterranean, but his findings were ignored for years by the scientific establishment. Nicknamed the " killer algae," these organisms have since taken over thousands of acres of seabed, and no one knows how to stop them. Recently they appeared for the first time off the coast of California, and now U.S. officials are struggling to contain their spread up the coast of California. [56 minutes]

  • Secret of Photo 51 (#3009)

    April 2003 marks the 50th anniversary of one of science's great milestones -- the discovery of the double-helix structure of DNA. This "cracking" of life's essential molecular "cookbook" was credited to three British scientists, James Watson, Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins. But their breakthrough would have been impossible without the work of a brilliant molecular biologist and crystallographer named Rosalind Franklin. In 1962, when the three men were awarded a Nobel Prize for their discovery, Franklin's name wasn't even mentioned. Tragically, she had died of cancer, four years earlier at age 37. The cancer was probably the result of radiation exposure she suffered while taking the x-ray photographs of the DNA that were directly responsible for decoding its structure. NOVA investigates the life of Rosalind Franklin and her unsung contribution to one of science's greatest discoveries. Through eyewitness accounts and the replication and re-enactments of numerous experiments, viewers will see the tragic story of a brilliant young woman and the male-dominated race to find the scientific secret of life. [56 minutes]

  • Infinite Secrets (#3010)

    Scientists use imaging techniques to unlock the secrets of the works of Greek scholar Archimedes. [56 minutes]

  • Who Killed The Red Baron? (#3011)

    Investigation of the feared aces demise, the origins of fighter planes and aerial tactic evolution. [56 minutes]

  • The Elegant Universe: Einstein's Dream/The String's the Thing (#3012)

    This Matrix-like production reveals how string theory describes starts, galaxies and atoms. [59 minutes]

  • The Elegant Universe: The String's the Thing (2 of 3) (#3013)

    This Matrix-like production reveals how string theory evolved from a forgotten 200-year-old formula. [56 minutes]

  • The Elegant Universe: Welcome to the 11th Dimension (#3014)

    Versions of string theory unite into "M-Theory," a development requiring 11 dimensions. [56 minutes]

  • Wright Brothers' Flying Machine (#3015)

    Explores the astonishing inventiveness that the brothers applied to the problem of powered flight. [56 minutes]

  • Magnetic Storm (#3016)

    The cause of a massive power grid failure might be one of the most serious threats to life on earth. [56 minutes]

  • Volcano Above the Clouds (#3017)

    A young geologist takes viewers back to the dawn of time and the formation of the African continent. [56 minutes]

  • Mars Dead Or Alive (#3101)

    Gripping behind the scenes glimpse of the design, launch and landing of two robotic explorers. [56 minutes]

  • Secrets of the Crocodile Caves (#3102)

    A remote refuge in Madagascar has ancient coral mountain ranges, spooky caves and secret gardens. [57 minutes]

  • Dogs and More Dogs (#3103)

    Search for the secrets of canine variation and behavior and visit state-of-the-art dog labs. [56 minutes]

  • Descent Into The Ice (#3104)

    Glacionauts explore a labyrinth of caves to find trapped flood water that menaces the valleys below. [56 minutes]

  • Crash of Flight 111 (#3105)

    The inside story of one of the most baffling and intricate aviation investigations ever mounted. [56 minutes]

  • Life and Death in the War Zone (#3106)

    Live day and night with the doctors, surgeons and staff of the 21st Combat Support Hospital in Iraq. [56 minutes]

  • Hunt for the Supertwister (#3107)

    Features hair-raising footage of highly destructive twisters in action and efforts to forecast them. [56 minutes]

  • World in the Balance: The People Paradox/China Revs Up (#3108)

    Social & economic forces produce different population profiles in India, Japan & sub-Saharan Africa. [74 minutes]

  • World in the Balance - China Revs Up (#3109)

    Dramatic scenarios highlight crucial population and environmental issues in an accessible style. [56 minutes]

  • Battle Plan Under Fire (#3110)

    Investigates the impact of advanced technology on President Bush' s war-fighting machinery. [53 minutes]

  • Origins: Earth Is Born/How Life Began (Part 1 of 2) (#3111)

    Explore the theory that ancient cataclysms and disasters made our planet hospitable. [82 minutes]

  • Origins: How Life Began (#3112)

    Explore the transformation that took place when inert, lifeless matter organized itself into life. [56 minutes]

  • Origins: Where Are The Aliens?/Back to the Beginning (#3113)

    Tyson explores such provocative questions as: would "ETs" resemble us or the creatures of science fiction? Are there "aliens" already amongst us on Planet Earth - brainy creatures whose intelligence is very different from our own? And are planets on which life can flourish rare or common in our universe? [84 minutes]

  • Origins: Back to the Beginning (#3114)

    Hour Four starts with a bang - the big bang in which everything began. "Origins: Back to the Beginning" explores how the colossal, mind-boggling forces of the early universe made it possible for habitable worlds to emerge. The clues begin with a race among scientists to capture lingering echoes of the big bang's ferocious energy in a microwave "whisper" from deep space. The race pits underdog astronomer Tony Readhead and his improvised detector in the high Andes against NASA scientists and their state-of-the-art satellite probe. Tyson shares his excitement with viewers as computer animation of the big bang's echo emerges on the screen. It's as close as we can get to a "photograph" of the primordial universe. Here we glimpse the seeds from which all the galaxies, stars, and planets eventually grew. In the search for answers to the many provocative questions the program raises, Tyson catches up with one of astronomy's most exciting recent findings: the discovery of the first planets outside our own solar system. Detecting more than 100 of these planets over the last few years, astronomers have developed an ingenious technique worthy of Sherlock Holmes for deducing whether or not they might be suitable for life. As for the ultimate question - whether we can contact an alien civilization - Tyson tells us to stay tuned, reminding us that the quest for origins has involved us in one incredible surprise after another. [56 minutes]

  • The Most Dangerous Woman In America (#3115)

    The story of "Typhoid" Mary Mallon, who was incarcerated for being a carrier of typhoid fever. [56 minutes]

  • America's Stone Age Explorers (#3116)

    Explore a truly provocative theory has stirred a storm of disbelief & argument among archaeologists. [56 minutes]

  • Great Escape (#3117)

    Examine the methods and devices used for the most ingenious prison escape of World War II. [56 minutes]

  • Ancient Refuge in the Holy Land (#3118)

    Could the treasure concealed in the cave be a long-lost relic of the great temple in Jerusalem? [85 minutes]

  • Welcome to Mars (#3201)

    Follows the adventures of the mission scientists and the rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. [56 minutes]

  • The Boldest Hoax (#3202)

    Explore the story of science's greatest fraud, involving false evidence of a primitive human. [56 minutes]

  • Supersonic Dream (#3203)

    The 30-year story of the development of the world's first supersonic airliner, the Concorde. [56 minutes]

  • NOVA scienceNOW (#3204)

    Robert Krulwich of ABC News explores cutting edge discoveries and the everyday impact of science. [56 minutes]

  • The Viking Deception (#3205)

    Presents fresh evidence confirming that the Vinland map of North America was a clever forgery. [56 minutes]

  • Saving The National Treasures (#3206)

    A look at the extraordinary engineering efforts that are safeguarding America's greatest documents. [57 minutes]

  • A Daring Flight (#3207)

    Louis Bleriot's flight across the English Channel was the first long-distance flight over water. [56 minutes]

  • Wave that Shook the World (#3208)

    A clear analysis of the tragic tsunami that devastated communities around the Indian Ocean in 2004. [76 minutes]

  • NOVA scienceNOW (#3209)

    Look at the promise and peril or stem-cell and profiles "nanoshell" inventor, Naomi Halas. [56 minutes]

  • NOVA scienceNOW: Fuel Cells (#3210)

    Explores how RNAi may provide treatment for diseases and why the Arctic glaciers are shrinking. [56 minutes]

  • Mystery of the Megaflood (#3211)

    Go back to the Ice Age to learn what happened when a titanic flood swept everything into oblivion. [56 minutes]

  • Sinking the Supership (#3212)

    Discover the wreck and learn the story of the Battleship Yamato, the pride of the Japanese fleet. [56 minutes]

  • Einstein's Big Idea (#3213)

    Ingenuity and human conflict surrounded Einstein's breakthrough unleashing the power of the atom. [116 minutes]

  • NOVA scienceNOW (#3214)

    Science and technology are changing our lives at a dizzying pace. So how can you keep up with the fast-moving frontiers of science and technology? The answer is "NOVA scienceNOW," an innovative science news and magazine show developed by the producers of NOVA. These programs draw on a limitless range of potential stories: from the secrets of the genetic code to fuel cells and hydrogen-powered cars, from the battle against cancer and heart disease to the quest to slow down aging and "grow" new organs. Well-known correspondent Robert Krulwich of Nightline and ABC News hosts the show. Krulwich's enthusiasm for science, his quirky humor and his uncanny ability to make difficult subjects compelling and entertaining brings a distinctive flair to the series. [56 minutes]

  • Volcano Under The City (#3215)

    Scientists risk their lives entering a volcanic crater to lower test instruments into the lava. [56 minutes]

  • Hitler's Sunken Secret (#3216)

    The team explores a sunken German ferryboat to find if it was sabotaged by the Norwegian resistance. [56 minutes]

  • Newton's Dark Secrets (#3217)

    Investigate the intricate facets of Newton's turbulent personality and his extraordinary life. [56 minutes]

  • Storm that Drowned a City (#3218)

    A minute-by-minute account of the Hurricane Katrina disaster, exploring the human failures. [56 minutes]

  • NOVA scienceNOW (#3219)

    NOVA scienceNOW presents a special edition produced in collaboration with Discover Magazine. The program offers a fast-paced round-up of more than a dozen of the year's most curious and groundbreaking science stories, including breakthroughs in embryonic stem cell techniques that may offer a way to avoid religious and ethical objections to the research; the discovery of a 10th planet in our solar system; the risk posed by a flu pandemic; the inspiring comeback of the ivory-billed woodpecker, thought to have gone extinct 60 years ago; evidence that the threat from powerful hurricanes is growing worse; and a profile of cancer researcher Tyler Curiel of Tulane University as he goes to dramatic lengths to save patients and irreplaceable research samples in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. [56 minutes]

  • The Mummy Who Would Be King (#3301)

    Unearth evidence to find if out these remains are actually that of a long-lost Egyptian Pharaoh. [56 minutes]

  • Deadly Ascent (#3302)

    Doctors, rescuers and mountaineers save lives and decipher the deaths on Alaska's Mount McKinley. [56 minutes]

  • The Perfect Corpse (#3303)

    Archaeological forensics is pushed to its limits while examining unearthed bodies from an Irish bog. [56 minutes]

  • Jewel of the Earth (#3304)

    Sir David Attenborough, explores extracting DNA from insects trapped in ancient amber fossils. [55 minutes]

  • The Ghost Particle (#3305)

    Explore the 70-year struggle to understand neutrinos, the secret ingredient of the cosmos. [56 minutes]

  • Arctic Passage: Prisoners of the Ice (1 of 2) (#3306)

    Historians and forensic scientists investigate the disappearance of two Royal Navy Ships in 1845. [82 minutes]

  • Arctic Passage: Ice Survivors (2 of 2) (#3307)

    Retraces the triumphant voyage of the innovative explorer who conquered the Northwest Passage. [56 minutes]

  • The Great Robot Race (#3308)

    The Pentagon's Darpa Grand Challenge is a contest solely for robotic, driver-less vehicles. [56 minutes]

  • Voyage to the Mystery Moon (#3309)

    Follow the mission of the Cassini/Huygens probe, which successfully landed on Titan, Saturn's moon. [56 minutes]

  • Dimming the Sun (#3310)

    Global dimming causes air pollution that allows less sunlight to reach earth's surface. [75 minutes]

  • Building On Ground Zero (#3311)

    This look back at the events of 9/11 reviews the investigation of the World Trade Center collapse. [56 minutes]

  • Mystery of the Megavolcano (#3312)

    A remote lake in Southeast Asia conceals evidence of Earth's greatest known volcanic eruption. [55 minutes]

  • Nova scienceNOW (#3313)

    Explores whether a doomsday asteroid will hit the earth in 2036 and what the consequences could be. [56 minutes]

  • Monster of the Milky Way (#3314)

    Reveals the dark secrets of black holes, from their birth to their destructive waves of energy. [56 minutes]

  • The Deadliest Plane Crash (#3315)

    Investigates the collision of two Boeing 747 airliners on an airport runway that killed 583 people. [56 minutes]

  • Wings of Madness (#3316)

    Reveals the daring gas-powered balloon flights and dramatic life of inventor Alberto Santos-Dumont. [56 minutes]

  • Family That Walks On All Fours (#3317)

    Examines the scientific implications of this family's strange impairment using evolutionary data. [56 minutes]

  • Nova ScienceNOW - Extinction (#3318)

    Is it possible that the biggest extinction in the history of life was caused by global warming? [56 minutes]

  • Underwater Dream Machine (#3319)

    Follows Peter Robbins on his four year quest to build a submarine with off-the-shelf machine parts. [56 minutes]

  • Nova scienceNOW (#3401)

    Astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson hosts this fast-paced and provocative science newsmagazine. [56 minutes]

  • MiGs (#3402)

    Cuttlefish can hypnotize their prey, impersonate the opposite sex & kill with lightening fast speed. [56 minutes]

  • Forgotten Genius (#3403)

    The vivid saga of Percy Julian's dazzling scientific achievements and often stormy personal life. [116 minutes]

  • The Last Great Ape (#3404)

    Researchers return to the Congo to explore a little-studied group of apes called bonobos. [56 minutes]

  • First Flower (#3405)

    Visit a remote mountain region of China to explore our fascination with flowers and how they began. [53 minutes]

  • Pocahontas Revealed (#3406)

    On the 400th anniversary of Jamestown, Virginia archaeologists reveal the truth behind the myth. [56 minutes]

  • Saved by the Sun (#3407)

    Problems and possible solutions to global warming are examined, with a focus on renewable energy. [56 minutes]

  • Bone Diggers (#3408)

    Littering the floor of this prehistoric grave site are preserved remains of long extinct creatures. [56 minutes]

  • The Great Inca Rebellion (#3409)

    A Peruvian archaeologist discovers hastily buried corpses from a little known battle in 1532. [56 minutes]

  • Nova scienceNOW (#3410)

    Scientists peer into the brains of sleeping flies and rats to understand the connection with memory. [56 minutes]

  • Nova scienceNOW (#3411)

    A look at startling new research that has recovered ancient proteins from dinosaur bones. [56 minutes]

  • Secrets of the Samurai Sword (#3412)

    Travel deep into Japan's ancient foundries to reveal the art & science of making the perfect sword. [56 minutes]

  • The Ghost In Your Genes (#3413)

    New findings call into question the belief that all inherited traits are passed on by our genes. [56 minutes]

  • Marathon Challenge (#3414)

    Sophisticated technology is used to examine how our bodies respond to intense exercise demands. [56 minutes]

  • Sputnik Declassified (#3415)

    Details the missteps that made the U.S. lose to the Soviets in the first round of the space race. [56 minutes]

  • Judgment Day: Intelligent Design On Trial (#3416)

    Interviews tell the story of science teachers who refused to teach Intelligent Design in school. [116 minutes]

  • Master of the Killer Ants (#3417)

    Go underground for a terrifying, up-close look at a raging war between termites and army ants. [56 minutes]

  • Missing In MiG Alley (#3418)

    Families attempt to trace what happened to pilots who were shot down during the Korean War. [56 minutes]

  • AstroSpies (#3501)

    Author Jim Bamford probes the untold story of a former top-secret military manned space program. [56 minutes]

  • The Four-Winged Dinosaur (#3502)

    Fossil finds of feathered microraptors are challenging old ideas about the origin of bird flight. [56 minutes]

  • Secrets of the Parthenon (#3503)

    Examines the challenging and controversial restoration of one of the world's best known buildings. [56 minutes]

  • Absolute Zero: The Conquest of Cold/The Race for Absolute Zero (#3504)

    Re-creates the groundbreaking discoveries that led to today's cutting edge "cold technologies." [116 minutes]

  • Absolute Zero: The Race for Absolute Zero (#3505)

    Re-creates groundbreaking discoveries that expanded our knowledge of low temperatures. [56 minutes]

  • A Walk to Beautiful (#3506)

    This story of hope and survival in Ethiopia follows five women devastated by obstetric fistula. [56 minutes]

  • Ape Genius (#3507)

    Our evolutionary next-of-kin are turning out to be far smarter than most experts ever imagined. [56 minutes]

  • Cracking The Maya Code (#3508)

    Investigates how pioneers deciphered the intricate system of hieroglyphs developed by the Mayans. [56 minutes]

  • Car of the Future (#3509)

    Tom and Ray Magliozzi of NPR's "Car Talk" examine new technologies and ideas in the world of cars. [56 minutes]

  • Lord of the Ants (#3510)

    While studying ants E.O. Wilson became the architect of a controversial discipline, sociobiology. [56 minutes]

  • Arctic Dinosaurs (#3511)

    Researchers combine extreme engineering and perilous fossil hunting in Alaska's North Slope. [56 minutes]

  • Space Shuttle Disaster (#3512)

    Interviews with investigators and family members give a new look at NASA and the Columbia tragedy. [56 minutes]

  • Parallel Worlds, Parallel Lives (#3513)

    Mark Oliver Everett of the band Eels learns about his father Hugh Everett, an influential physicist. [56 minutes]

  • Hunting The Hidden Dimension (#3514)

    The dramatic story of a group of pioneering mathematicians who developed the study of fractals. [56 minutes]

  • Alien from Earth (#3515)

    The discovery of tiny and bizarre human fossil bones in an Indonesian cave site has sparked debate. [56 minutes]

  • The Bible's Buried Secrets (#3516)

    Archeological artifacts left behind by the Israelites reveal the history of the Old Testament. [116 minutes]

  • Ocean Animal Emergency (#3517)

    A San Francisco veterinarian treats sea lions sickened by toxic algae blooms caused by pollutants. [56 minutes]

  • Is There Life On Mars? (#3518)

    Showcases the latest scientific discoveries on Mars made by NASA's robot rovers and Phoenix probe. [56 minutes]

  • The Big Energy Gamble (#3519)

    Examine California's energy conservation efforts and search for new sources of carbon-free power. [56 minutes]

  • The Incredible Journey of the Butterflies (#3601)

    Journey into the fascinating world of the Monarch butterfly and explore its migratory odyssey. [56 minutes]

  • The Spy Factory (#3602)

    For the first time on television, NOVA exposes the hidden world of high-tech, 21st-century eavesdropping carried out by the National Security Agency (NSA). Today, the NSA is the world's largest intelligence agency, three times the size of the CIA and far more secret. Its mission is to eavesdrop on the world - from cell phones in Europe to pay phones in Afghanistan to email messages from Pakistan to Baghdad. But since 9/11, it has also turned its giant ear inward, listening in without warrant on thousands of American citizens, many of whom are on the government's secret watch list, now more than half-a-million names long. Based on the latest best-seller by journalist James Bamford, "Inside the Spy Factory" is a gripping investigation of the NSA, from its tragic failures leading up to the 9/11 attacks to its secret listening rooms currently installed in the nation's telecom networks. The program presents groundbreaking new evidence about how the agency listened in to the phone calls of key 9/11 plotters, yet failed to realize they were located in the U.S. To show how current eavesdropping technology works, NOVA traces the path of an email sent from Asia to the U.S. via fiber optic cables on the Pacific sea floor. From a beach in California, the email then travels to a telecom switching facility in San Francisco, where the cables are covertly duplicated, with one copy of everything - including the original email - going to the NSA's secret room and the other transmitted to its proper destination. This is a suspenseful and eye-opening report on the threat to privacy and the effectiveness of high-tech surveillance in the age of terrorism. [56 minutes]

  • Rat Attack (#3603)

    Every 48 years, the inhabitants of the remote Indian state of Mizoram suffer a horrendous ordeal known locally as mautam. An indigenous species of bamboo, blanketing 30 percent of Mizoram's 8,100 square miles, blooms once every half-century, spurring an explosion in the rat population which feeds off the bamboo's fruit. The rats run amok, destroying crops and precipitating a crippling famine throughout Mizoram. NOVA follows this gripping tale of nature's capacity to engender human suffering, and investigates the botanical mystery of why the bamboo flowers with clockwork precision every half century. [56 minutes]

  • Extreme Ice (#3604)

    Scientists use time-lapse cameras in the Arctic and Alaska to create an archive of melting glaciers. [56 minutes]

  • Darwin's Darkest Hour (#3605)

    This program tells the story of the extraordinary human drama that led to the birth of the most influential scientific theory of all time. Acclaimed screenwriter John Goldsmith brings to life Charles Darwin's greatest personal crisis: the anguishing decision over whether to "go public" with his theory of evolution. Darwin, portrayed by Henry Ian Cusick (Lost), spent years refining his ideas and penning his "Big Book," On the Origin of Species. Yet, daunted by looming conflict with the orthodox religious values of his day, he resisted publishing -- until a letter from naturalist Alfred Wallace forced his hand. In 1858, Darwin learned that Wallace was on the brink of publishing ideas very similar to his own. In a sickened panic, Darwin grasped his dilemma: To delay publishing any longer would be to condemn all of his work to obscurity -- his voyage on the Beagle, his adventures in the Andes, the gauchos and bizarre fossils of Patagonia, the finches and giant tortoises of the Galapagos. But to come forward with his ideas risked the fury of the Church and perhaps a rift with his own devoted wife, Emma, portrayed by Frances O'Connor, who clung to a devout, orthodox view of creation. This program is a moving drama about the birth of a great idea seen through the inspiration and personal sufferings of its brilliant originator. [116 minutes]

  • The Last Extinction (#3607)

    A new theory suggests prehistoric animals were killed off by a comet breaking over the Great Lakes. [56 minutes]

  • Doctors' Diaries (1 of 2) (#3608)

    Seven doctors whose medical careers have been documented since 1987 are interviewed one last time. [56 minutes]

  • Doctors' Diaries (2 of 2) (#3609)

    A look at the struggles and progress of doctors whose medical careers have been followed since 1987. [56 minutes]

  • Musical Minds (#3610)

    Neurologist Oliver Sacks studies how music influences us from the womb and may help combat diseases. [56 minutes]

  • Hubble's Amazing Rescue (#3611)

    The inside story of NASA's risky mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope for the last time. [56 minutes]

  • What Are Dreams? (#3612)

    Leading dream researchers use extraordinary experiments to investigate the world of sleep. [56 minutes]

  • Becoming Human: First Steps (#3613)

    Top anthropologists investigate new discoveries that transform the picture of how we became human. [56 minutes]

  • Becoming Human: Birth of Humanity (#3614)

    Top anthropologists investigate new discoveries that transform the picture of how we became human. [56 minutes]

  • Becoming Human: Last Human Standing (#3615)

    Top anthropologists investigate new discoveries that transform the picture of how we became human. [56 minutes]

  • Lizard Kings (#3616)

    Monitor lizards, the largest lizards to walk the planet, are tracked through Australia's heartland. [56 minutes]

  • What Darwin Never Knew (#3617)

    Questions what really drives evolution, what turns one species into another and how humans evolve. [116 minutes]

  • Killer Subs in Pearl Harbor (#3701)

    Dive into the waters of Pearl Harbor to trace new clues to the historic sinking of the USS Arizona. [56 minutes]

  • Building Pharaoh's Ship (#3702)

    Archeologists construct and launch a mysterious vessel depicted on the wall of an Egyptian temple. [56 minutes]

  • Riddles of the Sphinx (#3703)

    A team in Egypt work to reverse the destructive forces of man and nature to save the Great Sphinx. [56 minutes]

  • Ghosts of Machu Picchu (#3704)

    Archeologists probe the ruins of this "Lost City of the Incas" and unearth sacred burial grounds. [56 minutes]

  • Extreme Cave Diving (#3705)

    A team of scientists dive into Blue Holes, underwater caves that formed during the last ice age. [56 minutes]

  • The Pluto Files (#3706)

    Neil deGrasse Tyson focuses on Pluto's discovery and the science that surrounds this former planet. [56 minutes]

  • Mind Over Money (#3707)

    A look at the world of finance explores why mainstream economists failed to predict the 2008 crash. [56 minutes]

  • Hunting The Edge of Space - The Mystery of the Milky Way (#3708)

    Examine how the telescope has fundamentally changed our understanding of our place in the universe. [56 minutes]

  • Hunting The Edge of Space - The Ever Expanding Universe (#3709)

    A look at how the telescope revolutionized human thought across science, philosophy and religion. [56 minutes]

  • Mt. St. Helens Back from the Dead (#3710)

    Documents the dramatic return of plant and animal life to the disaster zone's barren landscape. [56 minutes]

  • Building The Great Cathedrals (#3711)

    Hands-on experiments reveal architectural secrets used to erect these soaring, glass-filled walls. [56 minutes]

  • Emergency Mine Rescue (#3712)

    NOVA presents a special episode chronicling the fate of the 33 trapped miners. [56 minutes]

  • Trapped In An Elevator (#3713)

    Reveals the secret life of these machines that move 325 million passengers daily in North America. [56 minutes]

  • Dogs Decoded (#3714)

    New genetic discoveries shed light on the origin of dogs as well as the evolution of human culture. [56 minutes]

  • Secrets of Stonehenge (#3715)

    Investigations inside and around Stonehenge have kicked off a new era of discovery and debate. [56 minutes]

  • Quest for Solomon's Mines (#3716)

    Groundbreaking expeditions in the pockmarked desert of Jordan illuminate the legend of Solomon. [56 minutes]

  • Secrets Beneath the Ice (#3717)

    Scientists use a state-of-the-art drilling probe to investigate ice shelf melting in Antarctica. [56 minutes]

  • Deadliest Earthquakes (#3801)

    Follow a team of US geologists as they first enter Haiti in the immediate aftermath of the tragedy. [56 minutes]

  • Making Stuff Stronger (#3802)

    High tech material such as fuel cells, solar panels and quantum computers are shaping the future. [56 minutes]

  • Making Stuff Smaller (#3803)

    Explore quantum computers, carbon nanotubes, ultra-light automobiles and other high tech materials. [56 minutes]

  • Making Stuff Cleaner (#3804)

    Explores how materials used to make fuel cells, quantum computers and more are shaping the future. [56 minutes]

  • Making Stuff Smarter (#3805)

    Explore the wild ideas that have turned into a cutting-edge material or high-tech breakthroughs. [56 minutes]

  • Smartest Machine on Earth (#3806)

    Enter an IBM lab where scientists are working to perfect a machine that can answer any question. [56 minutes]

  • Crash of Flight 447 (#3807)

    Pilots and safety experts examine how this state-of-the-art airliner vanished without a trace. [56 minutes]

  • Venom: Nature's Killer (#3808)

    Scientists track down and capture the planet's most deadly creatures to study their toxic venom. [56 minutes]

  • Power Surge (#3809)

    The latest and greatest innovations that may turn back the clock on climate change are revealed. [56 minutes]

  • Japan's Killer Quake (#3810)

    A look at the science behind the catastrophe includes eyewitness videos and on-the-spot reporting. [56 minutes]

  • Engineering Ground Zero (#3811)

    Follows the five-year construction of the Freedom Tower and the World Trade Center Memorial. [56 minutes]

  • Finding Life Beyond Earth - Part 1 & 2 (#3813)

    Scientists are on the verge of answering one of the greatest questions in history: Are we alone? Combining the latest telescope images with dazzling CGI, "Finding Life Beyond Earth" immerses audiences in the sights and sounds of alien worlds, while top astrobiologists explain how these places are changing how we think about the potential for life in our solar system. We used to think our neighboring planets and moons were fairly boring - mostly cold, dead rocks where life could never take hold. Today, however, the solar system looks wilder than we ever imagined. Powerful telescopes and unmanned space missions have revealed a wide range of dynamic environments - atmospheres thick with organic molecules, active volcanoes and vast saltwater oceans. This ongoing revolution is forcing scientists to expand their ideas about what kinds of worlds could support life. If we do find primitive life forms elsewhere in the solar system, it may well be that life is common in the universe - the rule, and not the exception. [116 minutes]

  • Finding Life Beyond Earth - Moons and Beyond (#3814)

    Telescope images and dazzling CGI immerse audiences in the sights and sounds of alien worlds. [56 minutes]

  • Iceman Murder Mystery (#3815)

    Scientists investigate Otzi the Iceman, the mummified corpse found in a glacier in the Italian Alps. [56 minutes]

  • The Fabric of the Cosmos - What Is Space? (#3816)

    Space is a dynamic fabric that can stretch, twist, warp and ripple under the influence of gravity. [56 minutes]

  • The Fabric of the Cosmos: The Illusion of Time (#3817)

    The ultimate time traveling adventure hurtles us 50 years into the future and back to the Big Bang. [56 minutes]

  • The Fabric of the Cosmos: Quantum Leap (3 of 4) (#3818)

    A wild ride into the realm of quantum physics, which governs the universe on the tiniest of scales. [56 minutes]

  • The Fabric of the Cosmos: Universe Or Multiverse? (4 of 4) (#3819)

    Cutting-edge theories that suggest our universe may not be the only universe are explored. [56 minutes]

  • Deadliest Volcanoes (#3901)

    Scientists use new tools and techniques that are starting to reveal what makes a volcano tick. [56 minutes]

  • Bombing Hitler's Dams (#3902)

    In 1943 a squad of Lancaster bombers destroyed dams in Germany with a revolutionary bouncing bomb. [116 minutes]

  • 3D Spies of WWII (#3903)

    The untold story of the Allied air photo intelligence that played a vital role in defeating Hitler. [56 minutes]

  • Mystery of a Masterpiece (#3904)

    Cutting edge imaging analysis helps tie a striking portrait of a young woman to Leonardo da Vinci. [56 minutes]

  • Ice Age Death Trap (#3905)

    Preserved bones of mammoths, mastodons and other giant extinct beasts are uncovered in the Rockies. [56 minutes]

  • Hunting the Elements (#3906)

    Enter the world of weird, extreme chemistry on a quest to unlock the secrets of the elements. [116 minutes]

  • Secrets of the Sun (#3907)

    It contains 99.9 percent of all the matter in our solar system and sheds hot plasma at nearly a million miles an hour. The temperature at its core is a staggering 27 million degrees Fahrenheit. It convulses, it blazes, it sings. You know it as the sun. Scientists know it as one of the most amazing physics laboratories in the universe. Now, with the help of new spacecraft and Earth-based telescopes, scientists are seeing the Sun as they never have before and even re-creating what happens at the very center of the Sun in labs here on Earth. Their work will help us understand aspects of the sun that have puzzled scientists for decades. But more critically, it may help us predict and track solar storms that have the power to zap our power grid, shut down telecommunications, and ground global air travel for days, weeks, or even longer. Such storms have happened before-but never in the modern era of satellite communication. SECRETS OF THE SUN reveals a bright new dawn in our understanding of our nearest star-one that might help keep our planet from going dark. [56 minutes]

  • Separating Twins (#3908)

    The incredible story of twin girls born joined at the head as they prepare for separation surgery. [56 minutes]

  • Cracking Your Genetic Code (#3909)

    What will it mean when most of us can have the information in our DNA available for analysis? [56 minutes]

  • Deadliest Tornadoes (#3910)

    Explore the science behind the April 2011 tornadoes that left a trail of destruction across the US. [56 minutes]

  • Why Ships Sink (#3911)

    The events that led up to famous cruise disasters are reconstructed, including the Costa Concordia. [56 minutes]

  • Forensics on Trial (#3912)

    Investigates how today's shaky state of crime science can send innocent men and women to prison. [56 minutes]

  • Secrets of the Viking Sword (#3913)

    Science and detective work are used to reconstruct the revolutionary, high-tech Ulfberht sword. [56 minutes]

  • Mystery of Easter Island (#3914)

    New theories explore how and why the ancient islanders built and moved nearly 900 giant statues. [56 minutes]

  • Ultimate Mars Challenge (#3915)

    Curiosity's landing on Mars and the rover's on-the-ground experiments and discoveries are detailed. [56 minutes]

  • Inside The Megastorm (#3916)

    Experts, scientists and survivors discuss of Hurricane Sandy and the future of storm protection. [56 minutes]

  • Doomsday Volcanoes (#4001)

    Scientists explore the devastating global consequences of another Icelandic volcano eruption. [56 minutes]

  • Decoding Neanderthals (#4002)

    Geneticists explore what happened when the first humans encountered Neanderthals 60,000 years ago. [56 minutes]

  • Rise of the Drones (#4003)

    The explosive growth of airborne pilotless drones is transforming the armed forces of every nation. [56 minutes]

  • Who Killed Lindbergh's Baby? (#4004)

    Forensic techniques are used to find out what really happened to Charles Lindbergh's baby in 1932. [56 minutes]

  • Building Pharaoh's Chariot (#4005)

    Archaeologists, engineers and woodworkers test highly accurate replicas of Egyptian royal chariots. [56 minutes]

  • Earth from Space (#4006)

    NOVA takes data from earth-observing satellites and transforms it into dazzling visual sequences. [116 minutes]

  • Ancient Computer (#4007)

    An ancient Greek device in a 2,000-year-old shipwreck turns out to be the world's first computer. [56 minutes]

  • Mind of a Rampage Killer (#4008)

    NOVA correspondent Miles O'Brien investigates new theories about what compels rampage killers. [56 minutes]

  • Australia's First 4 Billion Years: Awakening (#4009)

    Experts explore bacterial slime, the earliest forms of life, in the red hills of Australia. [56 minutes]

  • Australia's First 4 Billion Years: Life Explodes (#4010)

    Ancient Australian fossils offer clues to how life stormed the beaches and dominated planet Earth. [56 minutes]

  • Australia's First 4 Billion Years: Monsters (#4011)

    Experts explore mammals and the previously unknown reptilian rulers of prehistoric Australia. [56 minutes]

  • Australia's First 4 Billion Years: Strange Creatures (#4012)

    The story of Australia's origins features deadly asteroids, titanic dinosaurs and giant kangaroos. [56 minutes]

  • Meteor Strike (#4013)

    Scientists hunt for debris and clues to the origin and makeup of a meteor that landed in Russia. [56 minutes]

  • Manhunt - Boston Bombers (#4014)

    A look at how modern technology and old-fashioned detective work helped catch the Boston bombers. [56 minutes]

  • Oklahoma's Deadliest Tornadoes (#4015)

    Scientists and storm survivors whose lives have been upended discuss violent, ferocious tornadoes. [56 minutes]

  • Ground Zero Supertower (#4016)

    NOVA returns to Ground Zero to witness the completion of One World Trade Center in New York City. [56 minutes]

  • Megastorm Aftermath (#4017)

    An investigation of Hurricane Sandy focuses on the critical questions raised by the historic storm. [56 minutes]

  • Making Stuff Faster (#4018)

    David Pogue explores lightning-fast electric cars, ultra-fast cameras and quantum teleportation. [56 minutes]

  • Making Stuff Wilder (#4019)

    Robotic bees, viruses building batteries and more innovations inspired by life itself are explored. [56 minutes]

  • Making Stuff Colder (#4020)

    David Pogue explores ultracold physics, cooling a warming planet and cold science innovations. [56 minutes]

  • Making Stuff Safer (#4021)

    The extent that science and technology can protect us from monumental forces of nature is explored. [56 minutes]

  • At the Edge of Space (#4023)

    The shimmering aurora, meteors and more phenomena are explored in the earth-space boundary zone. [56 minutes]

  • Asteroid: Doomsday Or Payday? (#4024)

    Would-be asteroid miners dream up their own program to scout for potentially profitable asteroids. [56 minutes]

  • Alien Planets Revealed (#4101)

    Animation and input from experts shed light on how NASA's Kepler telescope identifies new planets. [56 minutes]

  • Zeppelin Terror Attack (#4102)

    A look at how Germany's war zeppelins, the biggest flying machines ever made, were built and flown. [56 minutes]

  • Ghosts of Murdered Kings (#4103)

    Archaeologists in Ireland's County Tipperary investigate the violent deaths of bog body victims. [56 minutes]

  • Roman Catacomb Mystery (#4104)

    A forensic investigation explores an ancient city of the dead known as the Catacombs beneath Rome. [56 minutes]

  • Great Cathedral Mystery (#4105)

    Using period tools and techniques, bricklayers build a mini version of the Duomo in Florence. [56 minutes]

  • Killer Typhoon (#4106)

    The anatomy of Typhoon Haiyan, which slammed into the Philippines on November 8, 2013, is explored. [56 minutes]

  • Wild Predator Invasion (#4107)

    Scientists return apex predators to their environments to restore the balance of their ecosystems. [56 minutes]

  • Inside Animal Minds: Bird Genius (#4108)

    Researchers use the science of animal cognition to learn how birds understand the world around them. [56 minutes]

  • Inside Animal Minds: Dogs & Super Senses (#4109)

    Researchers use the science of animal cognition to learn how dogs understand the world around them. [56 minutes]

  • Inside Animal Minds: Who's The Smartest? (#4110)

    Scientists try to unlock the secrets of animal communication by tracking dolphins in the Caribbean. [56 minutes]

  • Why Sharks Attack (#4111)

    Leading shark experts research the science behind the great white's hunting instincts. [56 minutes]

  • Escape from Nazi Alcatraz (#4112)

    Aerospace engineers and carpenters test a plan to escape a Nazi war camp using a two-man glider. [56 minutes]

  • D-Day's Sunken Secrets (#4113)

    Dive teams and underwater robots discover Allied crafts that sank during the invasion of Normandy. [116 minutes]

  • Vaccines - Calling the Shots (#4114)

    Across the world, children are dying from preventable conditions because parents are avoiding shots. [56 minutes]

  • Rise of the Hackers (#4115)

    The fast-paced world of cryptography and the scientists battling to keep data safe are explored. [56 minutes]

  • Why Planes Vanish (#4116)

    The inside story of the search for Flight MH370 features key players from all corners of the globe. [56 minutes]

  • Ben Franklin's Balloons (#4117)

    An accurate replica of the first hot-air balloon is created using 18th-century tools and materials. [56 minutes]

  • First Air War (#4118)

    NOVA explores classic World War I fighters, some of aviation's most deadly early flying machines. [56 minutes]

  • Bigger Than T.rex (#4119)

    A team of paleontologists reconstruct the terrifying dinosaur dubbed Spinosaurus, piece by piece. [56 minutes]

  • Emperor's Ghost Army (#4120)

    The 8,000 buried clay warriors of China's first emperor are researched using 3D computer modeling. [56 minutes]

  • Killer Landslides (#4121)

    Geologist investigate what triggered the deadly landslide in the Washington state community of Oso. [56 minutes]

  • First Man on the Moon (#4122)

    An intimate portrait of the American hero features interviews with Armstrong's family and friends. [56 minutes]

  • Surviving Ebola (#4123)

    Scientists and courageous medical teams struggle to cope with a flood of victims Ebola in Africa. [56 minutes]

  • Big Bang Machine (#4201)

    Particle physicists attempt to close in on the Higgs boson, the Great White Whale of modern science. [56 minutes]

  • Sunken Ship Rescue (#4202)

    The operation to raise and salvage the capsized Costa Concordia cruise ship in Italy is chronicled. [56 minutes]

  • Sinkholes - Buried Alive (#4203)

    Sinkholes, a worldwide hazard that lurks wherever limestone bedrock is found, are investigated. [56 minutes]

  • Building Wonders: Hagia Sophia - Istanbul's Ancient Mystery (#4204)

    Architects and engineers examine the unique structure of the dome of Hagia Sophia in Istanbul. [56 minutes]

  • Petra - Lost City of Stone (#4205)

    Experts carve a temple-tomb to find out how the ancient people of Petra built their city of stone. [56 minutes]

  • Colosseum - Roman Death Trap (#4206)

    One of the world's most iconic buildings, the Colosseum is a monument to Roman imperial power. [56 minutes]

  • The Great Math Mystery (#4207)

    An exploration of math's power across the centuries sheds light on how math works in our brains. [56 minutes]

  • Invisible Universe Revealed (#4208)

    One of the most ambitious experiments in all of astronomy, the Hubble Space Telescope, is explored. [56 minutes]

  • Dawn of Humanity (#4209)

    The astounding discovery of ancient fossil human ancestors in a South African cave is highlighted. [116 minutes]

  • Nazi Attack On America (#4210)

    Undersea explorer Bob Ballard examines the wreck of a German submarine a few miles from New Orleans. [56 minutes]

  • Lethal Seas (#4211)

    As carbon emissions raise the oceans' acidity, experts try to crack the code of a changing seas. [56 minutes]

  • Secrets of Noah's Ark (#4212)

    A 3,700-year-old inscribed clay tablet reveals a surprising new version of the Biblical flood story. [56 minutes]

  • Chasing Pluto (#4213)

    The New Horizons spacecraft will fly by and take the very first detailed images of Pluto. [56 minutes]

  • Nuclear Meltdown Disaster (#4214)

    A look at how plant operators at Fukushima Daini averted disaster after the 2011 tsunami in Japan. [56 minutes]

  • Arctic Ghost Ship (#4216)

    The Franklin Expedition is explored 160 years after vanishing while charting the Northwest Passage. [56 minutes]

  • Cyberwar Threat (#4217)

    The chilling new reality of cyberwar, in which cyber weapons can do physical damage, is examined. [56 minutes]

  • Animal Mummies (#4219)

    The vast menagerie of animal mummies that lie buried in Egyptian catacombs are explored. [56 minutes]

  • Making North America: Origins (1 of 3) (#4220)

    Discover how forces of almost unimaginable power gave birth to the continent of North America. [56 minutes]

  • Making North America: Life (2 of 3) (#4221)

    The mysteries of how life evolved in North America, including the arrival of humans, are explored. [56 minutes]

  • Making North America: Human (3 of 3) (#4222)

    Discover the challenges faced and the wealth uncovered as humans take over the continent. [56 minutes]

  • Inside Einstein's Mind (#4223)

    Einstein's simple but powerful ideas that reshaped our understanding of gravity are examined. [56 minutes]

  • Secret Tunnel Warfare (#4301)

    [56 minutes]

  • Life's Rocky Start (#4302)

    NOVA goes around the world and back in time to investigate how minerals are vital to life. [56 minutes]

  • Mystery Beneath The Ice (#4303)

    Scientists search for the killer decimating the population of shrimp-like creatures in Antarctica. [56 minutes]

  • Nepal Earthquake (#4304)

    Dramatic eyewitness footage reveals the shocking quake that devastated Nepal in April 2015. [56 minutes]

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